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Lasting Effects of Slavery

Author: Victor M. Pomales Jr.


George Washington Carver HS of Engineering and Science

Year: 2020

Seminar: Cinema and Civil Rights

Grade Level: 9-12

Keywords: African American History, film, Slavery, social studies

School Subject(s): African American History, African American Literature, American History, English, Film, Social Studies

Social Studies education is in the midst of an ongoing crisis that began long ago. In a world ruled by fear and anger, the need for critical thinking, problem solving, and civil enjoyment skills are still at a premium. Despite the fact that we so often take them for granted. And in doing so, take social studies far too lightly. The purpose of this curriculum is to use the vehicles of public speaking, dialogue, and reflective and persuasive writing to cultivate critical thinking, civility, reflective metacognitive habits, so students can become positive change agents and actively take a part in shaping a better future.

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Full Unit Text
Content Objectives

Social studies is being taught incorrectly. Social studies has become a mundane class that entails the memorization of dates, names, and facts with little to no context or explanation about importance. Yet, this should not be its purpose. Social studies should be a class in which students learn about the reasoning that affected our collective human past with the purpose of creating a more perfect future, as well as being an introduction to all of social science (political science, sociology, philosophy, economics, history, and psychology). Furthermore, social studies classes should be an environment in which students can refine their critical thinking and logical reasoning skills. There is one other critical skill that, however, that is being neglected the most. Civil discourse.


The discussion revolving around Civil Rights in the United States of America is, easily, one of the most important for all people living in this country. However, is it a conversation that is rarely discussed in schools, in particular in middle schools. This is a disservice to the country as a whole. And there is no better example than present day American politics and the conversation sparked by the 45th president of the United States. The lack of empathy, perspective and understanding is an issue that runs deep and affects people of every race, ethnicity, social-economic status, political ideology and faith. Building metacognitive skills is also important.


Nevertheless, this is not a new issue in education. In a survey done in 1982 in a mid-west school district, showed that most students surveyed considered social studies the least important (Schug 1982). And this issue is only growing. In 2014 only 1.7% of college students graduated with a history major, down from 2.2% in 2007 (Grossman 2016).



According to the Philadelphia School Partnership, George Washington Carver High School for Engineering and Science (E&S) was founded in 1979 in partnership with Temple University. E&S specifically vies to attract students interested in science, technology, engineering, mathematics and medicine as stated on the school’s website. The school aims to provide rigorous instruction for college-bound students from all areas of the city of Philadelphia. Our school offers more than 15 Advanced Placement courses. E&S is a part of the autonomy network and operates a special admissions process. The admissions standards are based on behavioral and academic criteria and are selected based on school records. In addition to its strong academic program, E&S also extends a plethora of extracurricular programs including various academic clubs and competitive sports teams to our students. As a result of E&S student’s success, in 2015, the school was allowed to expand its academic program and become fully secondary, by adding a seventh and eighth grade. It has a total of 907 students in the 2019-2020 school year. Of that 907, 88% of the school are made up of students of color (65% African American/Black, 13% Asian, and Hispanic/Latino 10%). And of the 907 total, 61% of students are considered “economically disadvantaged.” Despite the students’ various hardships, 64% of them scored proficient or advanced on the Math PSSA, 83% of them scored proficient or advanced on the Science PSSA, and 94% of them scored proficient or advanced on the ELA PSSA. In all,  99% of E&S’ student body graduate and the students have a 99%  acceptance rate into college.


However, as bright and capable as our students are, most don’t have much experience outside of Philadelphia until they reach college and then must exist in a space where the dominant culture is not their own. Out of the over 16 million students who enrolled in undergraduate programs in 2008 over 10 millions of them were white, while Black and Hispanic only make up about 3.4 million (NCES).  Part of our responsibility as educators to prepare our students for the world they are about to face as well as civility they need not only to be responsible citizens but powerful change agents.


Defining Civil Rights and the use of Film

I was fortunate enough to be accepted into University of Pennsylvania’s “Teacher’s Institute of Philadelphia” seminar program. My seminar was titled Civil Right through Cinema. Throughout the seminar two major points were constantly examined. How should civil rights be defined? And, how do we use film to teach civil rights?


The latter can seem a bit intuitive, however, some explanation is needed to make sure the use of film serves its purpose. At times, the idea of a “movie day” in class is interpreted as “a day off.” However, this is far from the truth. For our fifth seminar meeting our Seminar leader, Karen Redrobe, asked us to watch the movie Selma. Per usual, I watched the entire film and took notes. However, I was unaware of how much of film can be broken down, analyzed, and explained. In that fifth meeting, we spent approximately 15 minutes analyzing the first 3 minutes of the film and at least five of those 15 minutes were spent breaking down five seconds of the film.


A “movie day” is not a day off. And, when done right, it can be the hardest lesson to prepare for. Film is powerful, even when it is not totally historically accurate. It can provide perspective that a lecture and reading simply cannot. I can tell my students that slave were dehumanized. My students can read primary sources of the abuse slaves endured. But neither can provide the stomach turning feeling of watching a person being brutalized by another that a film can. This is a sect of social studies that is criminally underappreciated and recognized. The ability of a person to learn and live vicariously through another is vital to that person’s future success. Not to mention the importance of empathy to a better world. Our student’s shouldn’t just think slavery was bad. They should know that it is one of the worst occurrences to ever afflict the United States and should do everything in their power to avoid anything to the liking from ever happening again. Yes, reading and lecturing is a part of this process, but so is film. We just have to be willing to do film properly in our classrooms.


The former is a more difficult question. It seemed, for so long, the term “civil rights” was really only referring to a 10 to 15 year time period from the 1950s to 1960s were “progress” was made for the historically disenfranchised and was a “movement” that had ended. However, in our first day of discussion, it became clear no one agreed with that definition despite all coming to a similar thought when asked about civil rights.


And this is why my seminar leader, Karen Redrobe, so astutely assigned the reading for our second class. Karen asked us to read The Long Civil Rights Movement and the Political Uses of the Past, written by Jacquelyn Dowd Hall (2005). In her journal article, Hall dispels myths of a defined civil rights era and exposes how slight gains can be used as a weapon against future progress.


In essence, the seminar class empowered me to break through the constraints of what civil rights was defined as by other and create my own demarcation for the benefit of my classroom and students. Thus, because this unit is geared toward eighth grade social studies, I will be using slavery the in 19th century and the Civil War as my moments to discuss America’s Civil Rights history.



This curriculum will be created for an 8th grade United States History class. It will be designed with the purpose of cultivate vital skills of

  • Civil discourse
  • Critical thinking
  • Metacognition


through the use of

  • Guiding questions
  • Classroom discussion
  • Argumentative essays
  • Reflections
  • Examination of Primary & Secondary sources
  • Purposeful watching of Film


The unit will be created to run between two and four weeks and meant to be taught in the final quarter of the school year. Students will read and watch certain American events and institutions that have contributed to the disenfranchisement and oppression of American people. Using knowledge built throughout the entire year (slavery, slave codes, Declaration of Independence, Constitution, Civil War) and information learned during the unit, students will then write, discuss, and reflect on those events and institutions and their lasting effects.


Each week will be accompanied with a guiding question (e.g. How are injustices from our collective past affect the way we live today?). During the week students will present with readings and film so they can learn more about each event/institution/topic discussed in class that week. Then they will write and discuss and by the end of each week students should be able to give an answer to the guiding question. Students will also be asked to write metacognitive reflections so they can examine their own thought processes and learning habits. The unit of this unit will culminate with the students writing a (relatively) short argumentative essay in which they will have choice in the exact topic. Ultimately, they will argue how a certain event/institution/topic discussed in class still affects Americans today and give suggestions of how we should discuss moving forward.

Teaching Strategies

Each week will have a guiding question to set the direction of that week’s lessons (see next sections for specifics). Each day will have a theme and objective completely laid out that will be repeated each week of the curriculum.


Day 1 (lecture day)


On this day, introduce the question of the week to your class. Give time for students (daily) to answer the question of the week in a few sentences of a paragraph as a Do Now (they will use these answers to create their reflection at the end of the week). I’d suggest having them write the answers and reflections to the guiding question on the document or space every time they visit it.


Then give students a chance to share their thoughts. Trying to call on different students each day. Also, have students also write why they think they feel this way. Have students write about some events, moments, or people who have affected their ideas (metacognition). Be sure to let students know they do not have to write or share anything they aren’t comfortable with.


Day one should be focused on the idea of Direct Causation (e.g. Abolitionist sentiment leading to the South’s succession and the succession leading to the Civil war, which put an end to slavery). Start with giving examples of everyday life. Then ask students to come up with their own examples with a partner. Finally, ask a few groups to share their examples.


This day should then be content heavy where students are taking notes (I generally give out guided notes). However, also creating time to stop direct instruction to point out direct causation and model critical thinking.


Lastly, have students revisit the question. Do they feel the same or different? Why?


Day 2 (examination of primary/secondary source)


On this day, after giving students time to reflect on the guiding question and share, you will introduce the first set of primary and or secondary sources they will analyze. Although it is the end of the year I still find it helpful to walk students through the manner in which you want them to analyze the sources via the “we do, you do” process. Or, looking at the first sources together and then allowing them to look at them on their own.


I will ask my students to annotate the sources like they would any other. Pull out keep words or concepts and themes, acknowledge anything they may not understand, identify anything that reminds them of previous content or knowledge. The one caveat will be having students relate the source to their guiding question. How does this source support your answer to our guiding question? How could it be used to argue against it?


Next, I will have students do a “pair and share” with other students (no greater than groups of three) and share their analysis of the source(s). Finally, students will share their thoughts with the entire class.


Depending on the skill level of each class, this process can vary in time length. I wouldn’t suggest asking every single student to share but if the conversation is going well I wouldn’t suggest cutting it short either. Know your students! If they can handle this, have more sources available and ready to go.


Day 3 (film observation)


On this day, after giving students time to reflect on the guiding question and why they think they way they do, students will watch film clips that have a correlation to the content from days one and two. Whether or not you use film often in your class you should walk through this with students. Have ready viewing questions ready and cover them with your students. Like anything else, set the expectations of what answers could/should look like.


Viewing questions should be diverse in nature and be no more than three of them. More than that and it may overwhelm the students. One question should be about the content of the scene, another should be about the manner in which it is filmed, and finally how the scene can relate back to the guiding question for the week.


I’d suggest working through the questions aloud and with the entire class after the first clip, the second clip, allowing the class together (with your subtle guidance) answer the viewing questions, and finally having students answer the question on a third class independently (I do, We do, You do).


If time permits, before asking students to share with the class as a group discussion, have them share with a partner. This gives them time to refine their answer with a peer before sharing with the entire class.


Day 4 (assessment)


On this day an assessment is given. After three days of driving deep, students should be more than prepared. The Contents of each assessment are up to each teacher. I like my exams to be versatile (multiple choice, fill in the blank, free response questions).


Afterward, if time permits, an activity can be ready for the students who finish early. This could be asking students to find more sources to support their answers to the guiding questions or allowing them the time to refine their answers to the guiding question.


Day 5 (reflection essay)


The final day of each week will end with an essay writing. First, students should revisit their answers and metacognitive reflections. Give them some time to round out their answers.


Next, you should go over how to create an outline to plan out the short essay. In this case students will be asked to write three paragraph essays until the final week which will be a five paragraph essay.


I make my outlines simple and easy to replicate. For example:

  • P1: Introduce the question and give your answer
  • P2: Support your answer with sources compiled (most will use ones you provided in class)
  • P3: Explain what events, moments, or people in your own lives that make you believe this is true.


After the outline is done, allow students to begin writing. I’d suggest pairing students up with a “writing buddy.” The buddies will use each other as a resource while they are writing. In the very least, they can switch essays and proofread each other’s essays.


Students will have the remainder of the class and the weekend to complete the short essay.

Classroom Activities

Following the structure outlined above, I will now give some examples of what I suggest the first and last week should look like.


Day 1 of Week 1: How do past events, people, institutions affect the future?


Do Now (5-8 minutes)

As previously stated, give students time to answer this question independently. If your class isn’t filled with many in depth writers, out a sentence requirement on their response. Inform students that they should not be worried about giving a specific answer. They can write whatever they believe to be the truth even if that answer is the past does not have a significant effect on the future.


Give up to five students the opportunity to share their response. If you have more who want to share, let them know they will have the chance the rest of the week to share.


Main Activity (30-35 minutes)

As  stated above, the first day is a traditional lecture class. I give my students guided notes or notes that mirror my PowerPoints except certain keywords or phrases are missing from the notes which students fill in. This helps them remember the words or phrases and also signals to them that these words or phrases are, in fact, key.


The texted book I use is called United States History (Holt, Rinehart, and Winston) which breaks each chapter into sections. Thus, this unit will cover a section per week (four sections, four weeks) of each in the final chapter covered (chapter 15). If your textbook doesn’t break chapters up, do so yourself.


This first day will cover section one of chapter 15 titled “The Debate Over Slavery.” As stated in the section above, it is important to point out spots where students should be able to think critically about the content while reflecting on the question.


For instance, when the topic of “popular sovereignty” arises in the 1820s, I would stop the lecture and ask, “Where do you think American citizens would’ve gotten that idea from? Is there an precedence for that? Can you give me some examples?”


Closing (5-10* minutes)

The closing activity should reflect the needs and skill level of your students as well as the time remaining in class. I generally have between five to ten minutes left in class after I complete my lecture and discussions with my students. During this time I allow them to reflect on the question one more time to see if they would like to adjust or add to their answer. Or students may work on a vocabulary list they can use to study.


*If your class ends with more than ten minutes to go, you may want to try a more abstract activity to help your students retain the information. I play vocabulary Pictionary with my class. It helps them think of their key words and phrases in different ways because most of the words and phrases are not easily drawn. I find this helps them retain the meaning of the word and phrases at a higher rate.


Day 2 of Week 1: How do past events, people, institutions affect the future?


Do Now (5 minutes)

Repeat the “Do Now” process from the previous day, while making sure up to five new students have a chance to share their thoughts.


Main Activity (38 minutes)

On this day students will analyze primary and/or secondary sources. By this time in the year students should know what primary and secondary sources are but it wouldn’t hurt to go over that with them. Feel free to choose whatever sources you feel are appropriate for your class. Because my class will be discussing life in the mid 1800s, the first source we will analyze is The Fugitive Slave Act of 1850.


It is a long text that has 10 sections. For this reason, I will break students into (preplanned) groups. Each group will be assigned one to two sections they need to annotate and summarize. Before students begin with their groups, we will read and analyze the first section together. Students will also have a handout with the sections pre-labeled and space below each for the students to write their summaries.


Students will have about 25 minutes to work on their sections. With 10 to 13 minutes left in class, each group will give their summaries for their sections so everyone has a summary of the entire act.


If the Fugitive Slave Act is a bit too dense or difficult for your class to analyze, I’d suggest looking at some text like Uncle Tom’s Cabin, which is an anti-slavery novel by American author Harriet Beecher Stowe. Published in 1852. The novel is credited to have had a profound effect on attitudes toward African Americans and slavery in the U.S.


Closing (5 minutes)

The final task of the day will be asking students to revisit the guiding question using the sources as evidence to their claim. “Do the sources we examined today help or hurt your claim? In what ways? Did the sources reinforce or change your mind?”


Day 3 of Week 1: How do past events, people, institutions affect the future?


Do Now (5 minutes)

Repeat the “Do Now” process from the previous day, while making sure up to five new students have a chance to share their thoughts.


Main Activity (25-30 minutes)

These are the least structured days in the unit, as all movie days are. The challenge always becomes, how do I keep my students engaged and thinking critically? As stated before, know your students! Be mindful of the movies you pick and how much of it you show before jumping back in. If you love the message given in a movie created in the 1940s and believe it is important for your students to watch, it does not mean they are ready to watch and understand it. If you know after three or four minutes you will start to see eyes wonder, show two minute clips. This day, more than any other, you should take all the liberties necessary for your student to thrive.


This day may also be the most difficult to accomplish if your school does not have access to much technology. Be as creative as you need to be. The following will be how I teach it in my classroom with my students.


First, I will discuss the idea of critical watching and what my expectations are for my students during the main activity. Overall, I want my students to think about what they are watching versus simply taking it all in. If something surprises them, if something is hard to watch or make them feel or think a certain way I want them to take note of it and after the clip start to wonder why it did so.


Second, I want students to also think about the film makers. In those same scenes they noted, what was the camera doing? What were the actors doing? Why? The students do not have to do their Roger Ebert impression, but I do want to think about the film makers intent.


Lastly, I want my students to think about how the movie clips they watch relate back to the guiding question and their response to it. I will also take this time to inform my students that they may not like everything they are seeing and hearing and if they need to they can excuse themselves. However, human’s history is as horrible as it is beautiful and I would challenge them to notate why something is offensive rather than avoiding it.


Then I would show the first clip. I may show each clip a few times. And after doing so, I would continue to make use of the “I do, we do, you do” strategy, with the expectation that students will be able to jump straight into the “you do” the following weeks. Thus, this first week I may only show one clip.


For example, I would show the opening scene from “12 Years a Slave.” In my example of how to respond to a clip I could explain my offense to the use of racial slurs and how willing white characters are to use them. I could explain that the sleeping conditions for the black characters seemed awful and how I would find it very uncomfortable if I was made to sleep on the floor with dozens of people shoulder to shoulder. I would share that I thought the filmmakers were showing us how poor the living conditions were for black people during the time period and how much white people were able to profit from it. I would discuss the camera angle when Solomon realizes his raspberries are bleeding.


From there, I would show the clip again and allow students to come to their own conclusions and have a handful of students share.



Finally, I would give students time to revisit the guiding question. “Do the movie clips we examined today help or hurt your claim? In what ways? Did the sources reinforce or change your mind?”


Day 4 of Week 1: How do past events, people, institutions affect the future?


This is the assessment day. Give whatever assessment you feel is best for you students. See the above section for more direction.


Day 5 of Week 1: How do past events, people, institutions affect the future?


This is the writing day. After you go over how to plan an essay (see above) let them know who their writing buddy is and have your students sit next to that person.


I suggest giving your student time intervals of silent work time and Buddy work time. I will give my students 10 minutes of silent writing time and then five minutes of Buddy time. During Buddy time they can ask for feedback or discuss ideas from (and only) their Buddy. Students MUST use their Buddy. They may not opt out of it. Even if they only discuss their position on the guiding question, it is important they practice civil discourse even at its most minimal.


Students will then have the weekend to complete the essay. A sample rubric is attached at the end of the Appendix section.


This curriculum is created with very defined structure but is also a living documents. Educators, please adjust and amend as you see fit for your students. Maybe you decide to make them write less and speak publicly more. Or, watch more film clips and write reflections about the clips. The possibilities are endless.


Ultimately, the purpose of this study is to make sure students are thinking about the world around them, how the past affects it, and what role they can take in shaping their world for the betterment of us all. It is a lofty goal and incredibly hard to achieve. It will not always be pretty, but it will be worth every painstaking moment. The world needs our students, we need our students to make positive change. We must help them learn they are capable of doing just that.



“Digging Deep Into the Social Justice Standards.” Teaching Tolerance, no. 64, 2020.

Teaching Tolerance provides free resources to educators—teachers, administrators, counselors and other practitioners—who work with children from kindergarten through high school. Educators use our materials to supplement the curriculum, to inform their practices, and to create civil and inclusive school communities where children are respected, valued and welcome participants.

In the article “Digging Deep Into Social Studies Standards” the authors create a method to help educators and students recognize bias, stereotypes, and unfairness that looms within social studies materials and practices.

Grossman, James. “Op-Ed: History Isn’t a ‘Useless’ Major. It Teaches Critical Thinking, Something America Needs Plenty More Of.” Los Angeles Times, Los Angeles Times, 30 May 2016,

This article is a short piece written by James Grossman explaining the decline in the “history” social science major science the beginning of “The Great Recession” of 2007. In his article he explains his opinion that history (and other social science) are taken for granted. He believes they are necessary to study because the social science develop intangible skills such as critical thinking.

In relation to this curriculum, the article was used to site statistics that suggested social sciences, history specifically, are not seen as an important field of study.

Hall, Jacquelyn Dowd. “The Long Civil Rights Movement and the Political Uses of the Past.” The Journal of American History, vol. 91, no. 4, 2005, pp. 1233–1263. JSTOR, Accessed 15 May 2020.

This Journal was written by Jacquelyn Dowd Hall in 2005 that covers a number of ways the “Civil Rights Movement” has been used and manipulated to serve the purposes of the dominate cultures. And examples of this would be how history texts book describe the “civil rights” period as a set time period and not a movement that is ongoing. Another example is how black women are portrayed in history, as figures needing saving or playing minor roles in their own progress. Instead of the front liners they absolutely were.

Schug, Mark C., et al. Why Kids Don’t Like Social Studies. National Council for the Social Studies, 1982, Why Kids Don’t Like Social Studies.

A survey of 6th and 12th grade students in a Midwest school district reveals largely indifferent or negative attitudes toward social studies subjects. Forty-six students responded to questions which asked them to name the most important, favorite, and least favorite subjects and to recall what was interesting and uninteresting in former social studies classes. English, mathematics, and reading ranked ahead of social studies as most important; the majority of students based their decisions on skills needed for future careers. Seventeen percent chose social studies as the most important subject. Social studies ranked neither high nor low as a favorite or least favorite subject. Student comments indicate that it is not perceived as a particularly enjoyable subject and is not considered especially difficult. Elementary students enjoyed history and cultural studies while senior high students favored psychology, sociology, and anthropology. Many students found social studies content boring, citing that the information is too far removed from their experience, too detailed, or too repetitious. These reasons suggest the need to strive for greater variety in instruction and provide more opportunities for student success.

“Status and Trends in the Education of Racial and Ethnic Minorities.” National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) Home Page, a Part of the U.S. Department of Education,

Status and Trends in the Education of Racial and Ethnic Groups examines the educational progress and challenges students face in the United States by race/ethnicity. Through indicators and spotlights—which examine selected topics in greater detail—this report shows that over time, increasing numbers of students in the racial/ethnic groups of White, Black, Hispanic, Asian, Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, American Indian/Alaska Native, and Two or more races have completed high school and continued their education in college. Despite these gains, the rate of progress has varied among these racial/ethnic groups and differences by race/ethnicity persist in terms of increases in attainment and progress on key indicators of educational performance.


Here is a list of texts and films that one could use while teaching this unit.

Texts: The Long Civil Rights Movement and the Political Uses of the Past (Jacquelyn Dowd Hall), Uncle Tom’s Cabin (Harriet Beecher Stowe), A Homemade Education (Malcolm X), Wayward Lives, Beautiful Experiments: Intimate Histories of Social Upheaval (Saidiya Hartman), The Sellout (Paul Beatty), Racism: Then and Now (Angela Davis), Twelve Years a Slave (Solomon Northup & David Wilson), The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano; or, Gustavus Vassa, the African, Written by Himself (Olaudah Equiano), Narrative of William W. Brown, a Fugitive Slave (William Wells Brown), Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave, Written by Himself (Frederick Douglass), Declartion of Independence, United States Constitution, Fugitive Slave Act of 1850.

Films: 12 Years a Slave (Steve McQueen, 2013), Selma (Ava DuVernay, 2014), Guess Who’s Coming to Dinner? (Stanley Kramer, 1967), Chisholm ’72: Unbought and Unbossed (Shola Lynch, 2004), Free Angela and All Political Prisoners (Shola Lynch, 2012), 13th (Ava DuVernay, 2016), Slavery by Another Name (PBS, 2012), Roots (1977),  Eyes on the Prize (1987).

Any of this texts or films can be used for this unit, in particular, for days two and three of each week. Feel free to use sources that you are already familiar with.


Teaching Standards

Below is a list of teaching standards that could be cover over the course of this unit depending on the choices you (the educator) makes on sources, films, and other materials. Because Social Studies is a catch all for all of the Social Science, literally all of these standards (and more) could be touched and covered.

Standard – 5.1.8.C

Analyze the principles and ideas that shaped local, Pennsylvania, and national governments.

Liberty / Freedom




Standard – 5.1.8.D

Summarize the basic principles and ideals within documents and the roles played by the framers as found in significant documents:

Declaration of Independence

United States Constitution

Bill of Rights

Pennsylvania Constitution

Standard – 5.1.8.E

Compare and contrast the individual rights guaranteed by the PA Constitution versus the U.S. Constitution.

Standard – 5.1.8.F

Analyze how political symbols are used by the media and leaders to influence public opinion.

Standard – 5.2.8.C

Describe the role of political leadership and public service.

Standard – 5.2.8.D

Describe the citizen’s role in the political process.

Standard – 5.3.8.C

Describe how local, state, and national governments provide services.

Standard – 5.3.8.D Identify leadership positions and the role of political party affiliation at the local, state, and national levels.

Standard – 5.3.8.H

Describe the influence of mass media on government.

Standard – 5.4.8.C

Explain how common problems (e.g., natural disasters, ethnic conflict, environmental concerns) are addressed by organizations and governments.

Standard – 5.4.8.D

Describe how mass media influences our view of international events.

Standard – 8.1.8.A

Compare and contrast events over time and how continuity and change over time influenced those events.

Standard – 8.1.8.B

Compare and contrast a historical event, using multiple points of view from primary and secondary sources.

Standard – 8.2.8.A

Compare and contrast the social, political, cultural, and economic contributions of specific individuals and groups from Pennsylvania.

Standard – 8.2.8.C

Compare and contrast the ways continuity and change have impacted Pennsylvania history.

Belief systems and religions

Commerce and industry


Politics and government

Physical and human geography

Social organizations

Standard – 8.2.8.D

Compare and contrast examples of how conflict and cooperation among groups and organizations impacted the history and development of Pennsylvania.

Ethnicity and race

Working conditions


Military conflict

Economic stability

Standard – 8.4.8.D

Compare conflict and cooperation among groups and organizations which have impacted the history and development of the world.