“Free To Be ME”

Author: Charlene Jones

School/Organization:

John Barry Elementary

Year: 2020

Seminar: New Approaches to the History of Slavery: The View from the Penn and Slavery Project

Grade Level: K-8

Keywords: abolitionist, bullying, by-stander, campaign, Middle School, Slavery, students, up-standers

School Subject(s): Social Studies, African American History

I have the pleasure and challenge of returning to the segregated community where I grew up to teach children of color in an elementary school from grades K-8. The school is housed in a community that is plagued with many socio-economic challenges. The challenges of the community become challenges for the school community as well.  One of the challenges my school community faces is bullying. A lot of students do not feel safe while attending school because of the behavior of their peers against them.

My thirty years of experience has given me a glimpse of how far my community has come and how far we have to go to gain a Free Appropriate Public Education in a safe environment for all students, a standard that was guaranteed by The Rehabilitation Act of 1973. Students are not dealing with the issues of enslavement or unfair segregation laws but one of their challenges is to deal with feelings of un-safety at school. Students dread coming to school for fear of being bullied, teased and even beaten up in the school setting.  I would like to see students learn about the inhumanity of slavery, sympathize with the enslaved, and become an advocate for anti-bullying, following the model left for them by abolitionists and refugees in their fight against slavery. This curriculum unit will address the issue of bullying and create a school campaign for students to take a stand and create change at their school. Students will learn about the history of slavery, the abolitionist movement to end slavery and the efforts of enslaved people to escape. Empowered by this knowledge, they will be well positioned to end bullying at their school.

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Full Unit Text
Content Objectives

Introduction

Slavery in the United States was hypocritical for a nation that claimed to be based on liberty. Men and women who benefited from slavery worked hard to come up with justifications for exploiting human beings who should have enjoyed the rights to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness according to the nation’s Declaration of Independence. In the face of years of cruelty, heroes of humanity began to piece together a mosaic to awaken the humanity of a country. Looking back at the historical milestones in the effort to end slavery, we get a glimpse of this mosaic effort to create a better future, with each piece of the mosaic produced by courageous people. Escaping enslaved people and abolitionists challenged the status quo and demanded change for a better future. The emancipation of enslaved people in the United States was one such historical milestone that took the work of courageous heroes, challenging the conscience of an entire nation about its treatment of people as chattel. We must encourage our students to be the heroes of humanity for their own generation by working to end bullying.

Slavery has been in existence since early in human history.  Historical documents trace the origin of slavery as well as efforts to justify it to ancient human societies. The ancient Greeks, glorified for their articulation of democratic principles, were also enslavers. Aristotle (384-322BC) a student of Plato and one of the greatest Athenian writers of philosophy, logic, natural science, rhetoric, theater, and politics stated, “some men are slaves by nature, and others are free men, it is clear that where slavery is advantageous to anyone, then it is just to make him a slave.” (Gordon, 2016, p. xix)

By Aristotle’s logic, where a person was born, or to whom he or she was born, would determine his or her fate. If a person happened to be captured during war, his likely fate was to be a slave as part of the spoil. If a person happened to be born of an enslaved woman, his or her plight was determined by birth. A person could then be understood to be a slave by nature as well as by circumstances or custom.

The normalcy of slavery was accepted by most religions around the ancient world. Very few religions condemned the ownership of human beings as property. There are parts of the Bible that even give moral justification for slavery.  In 1849 a book was written titled, Slavery and the Constitution by William I. Bowditch that discussed this biblical heritage. The first chapter titled, “Slavery Agreeable to God’s Providence”, describes how people of refined minds believed by God’s ordinance that slave holding was “…. agreeable by Divine Providence.” (Bowditch, 1849, p.2)  One ancient religion that was silent on the topic of slavery was Buddhism. In spite of religious teachings advocating nonviolence toward all living species, Buddhist lived comfortably for millennia with slaves as the main labor force for monasteries (Gordon, 2016,p.xix).

From the 16th to the late 19th centuries, the Transatlantic Slave trade was the transportation route for enslaved Africans across the Atlantic Ocean to the slave markets of the Americas. Over 12 million slaves were captured from African soil and taken to produce sugar, tobacco, rum, indigo, rice and cotton on plantations. Enslavers in the Americas treated enslaved people atrociously and there were few real restrictions on the horrors of that treatment. Slave codes were instituted to protect slave owners from the danger of slave violence but no humanitarian laws protected the slaves.  The slave codes forbade the enslaved to bear arms, to read or even to congregate without an overseer present. The slave codes deterred the slaves from empowering themselves. If slaves defied or threaten their masters, they were severely beaten or even killed and dismembered.

Around 1750, a few dissenters emerged on the scene to challenge the status quo of slavery. One group of activists emerged from among the Quakers. Quakers are a Christian sect that believes in peaceful principles, and embraces a concept of the spirit of God dwelling within all human beings. Quaker abolitionists, a radical portion of the larger sect, were one of the first religiously motivated groups to enter the fight to abolish slavery in America. Outspoken Quakers Benjamin Lay and Anthony Benezet began this struggle in Pennsylvania. Later Quakers manumitted enslaved people and aided escaping slaves in gaining their freedom by way of the Underground Railroad. Quakers also were involved in the political fight against slavery. Benjamin Franklin, although himself a slaveowner, was eventually influenced by the Quaker faith and became an incisive and rational opponent of slavery. He served as President of the Pennsylvania Society for promoting the Abolitionist of Slavery (Gordon, 2016).

Though the work of the Quakers was monumental, many Quakers were considered hypocritical. Men like Benjamin Franklin paid lip service to Quaker values but still held slaves of his own. He was also one of the Founding Fathers of America and shared in writing the preamble to the Declaration of Independence,

“We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. “ – Preamble to the Declaration of Independence, 1776

William Penn, the founder of Pennsylvania, was also a Quaker yet he held over 577 slaves. But the hypocrisy of fallible men was not able to hinder the movement to abolish slavery. Friends Historical Library at Swarthmore College and the Quaker Collection at Haverford College are jointly the custodians of Quaker meeting records of the Mid-Atlantic region, including Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, New York and Vermont and these records illuminate the origins of the anti-slavery movement as well as the continued Quaker involvement, often behind the scenes, in the leadership and direction of the abolitionist movement from the 1770s to the abolition of slavery in the United States in 1865, and beyond. (The Quakers and Slavery Project (2007)).

Many writers of the Constitution also suffered from a dual consciousness on the subject of slavery. Forty seven percent of all signers of the Constitution were enslavers. For example, Thomas Jefferson published articles against slavery but yet enslaved over 600 human beings over the course of his lifetime. The U.S. Constitution declares equality under the law for all people, yet enslaved people weren’t included in “We the People of the United States…. and to Secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity’. The white people of the nation demanded freedom for themselves and their descendants from Great Britain but did not offer this same right to enslaved human beings.

We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America. –Preamble of the Constitution, 1789

 

When the Constitution was adopted, slavery was legal in all states except for Massachusetts. This document that declared “Blessing of Liberty” for its citizens, did not include slaves as citizens. In the first Article, section 2, of the Constitution, citizens are defined as “free persons, including those bound to service for a term a years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifth of all other persons.” As an abolitionist in the nineteenth-century observed, “this Article, therefore, recognizes slavery explicitly as if the word Slave itself has been used, and gives to the Free person in a Slave State, solely because they are slave holders, a large representation, and consequently greater political power, the same number of free person in a free state, “describing this as a Bounty On Slaveholding!” (Bowditch, 1849)

It would take heroic efforts to challenge the universal acceptance of slavery. Even the bible appeared to nineteenth century white Americans to provide moral justification for slavery. In 1849, William I. Bowditch’s Slavery and the Constitution, he attempted to refute the biblical support for slavery. The first chapter, “Slavery Agreeable to God’s Providence,” describes how people of refined minds believed by God’s ordinance that slave holding was “…. agreeable by Divine Providence.” (Bowditch, 1849, p.2) Bowditch reported on a sermon that was given in Philadelphia in 1846 to challenge the conscience of the nation. Bowditch was born in 1819 in Massachusetts to abolitionist parents. He aided in the Underground Railroad. He was a hero of his time and stated loud and clear, “Slavery is wrong!”, in the face of white slaves holders that used the Bible to justify their right to enslave another human being. Bowditch stated, “slaveholding is wrong under all circumstances because it darkens the minds, brutalize the soul, and deadens the affections of the slaves……If it is wrong to murder the body, how much more wrong is it to murder the soul! Slave holding is murder of the soul.” (Bowditch,1849, p.4)

Bowditch encouraged the abolitionist effort to challenge church leaders and churchgoing white people to take a stand against slavery, quoting from the Reverend Dr. Joel Parker, “no seeming of logic can ever convince the American people, that thousands of our slaveholding brethren are not excellent, humane and even Christian men, fearing God and keeping His commandments.” (Bowditch,1849,p107)  Bowditch was challenging white people’s interpretation of biblical scripture, regarding slavery, that was used to justify slavery by asking white congregates to stand up against slavery.

 

This information prompts the questions: How do we explain the actions of seemingly enlightened and intelligent policy-makers to uphold the atrocity of slavery? What type of reasoning would allow for such savagery toward fellow humans? One way to answer these questions is to look at the history of scientific racism, used to justify slavery, colonialism, and Native dispossession. Scientific racism is the effort to use science to make claims about alleged biological differences between the races. “Southern slaveholding states needed a strong argument in defense of slavery against pressure exerted by the primarily Northern abolitionists.” (Dewbury, 2007, p.7). This argument had the backing of medical schools that performed craniometrical studies to prove the inferiority of all non-white people, including people defined as African or indigenous American. The University of Pennsylvania (Penn) Medical School, founded in Philadelphia, supported and relied upon such craniometrical studies. This type of science was contrary to the core beliefs of Quakers, which is equality and nonviolence toward all human kind. Scientific racism was widely accepted throughout the medical world, and Penn Medical was no exception. Penn medical faculty were leaders in the field of race science, a fact that guaranteed high enrollments of white southern students in the medical school throughout the antebellum period. (The Penn & Slavery Project). “Penn’s medical school was the premier, and primary, place for the training of southern doctors,” notes historian Christopher Willoughby. “Medical education was a key site for the proliferation of ideas about race, the intellectual inferiority of non-white people, and the scientific justification for the continued enslavement and subjugation of people of African descent”(Willoughby, 2017, p.331).

Samuel George Morton (1799–1851) was a medical student at Penn.  He was born in Philadelphia, and graduated from Penn in 1820. “He was influential in the study of Anthropology. His infamous craniometrical studies provided a rallying point for the polygenist movement as objective proof for the diverse origins of humankind and the superiority of the white race.” (Dewbury, 2007, p.7) Morton began collecting skulls in the early 1830s. His research concluded that the size of the skull determined intellectual ability. He assumed even before conducting his research that white people had larger brains so were more intelligent and Africans and Native Americans had smaller brains so they were considered less intelligent. The Histories of Anthropology Annual, Volume 3, 2007, pp. 121-147, published an article titled The American School and Scientific Racism in Early American Anthropology explains in detail how Morton and other American theorist used science to justify slavery.

“Morton then enumerates the general properties of each race and of the families within each race. Along with brief descriptions of skin color, hair form, head shape, and various craniofacial features, Morton also describes the intellectual and moral characteristics of the races and families. It is here where Morton’s scientific objectivity falters and his work becomes tinged with racial prejudice, especially in statements concerning the Caucasian and Ethiopian races. The Caucasian race, according to Morton, ‘is distinguished for the facility with which it attains the highest intellectual endowments,’ while members of the Ethiopian race “present a singular diversity of intellectual character, of which the far extreme is the lowest grade of humanity. (Dewbury, 2007, p.126). Morton’s research was cited by defenders of slavery and the founders of the Confederacy, including Alexander Stephenson in his “Cornerstone Speech.” But it was also broadly accepted in medical schools around the world. This is where human kind went terribly wrong. Believing in a flawed science that justifies malignant behavior for personal gain became the sin of the nation. The question that arises, how would the country identify this as a sin, and how could this be accomplished? The sin needed to be rooted out. Who would take on this challenge?

To overturn the sin of slavery would take heroes dedicated to the cause. For the sake of this unit we will define heroes as individuals who 1) stand up against the inhumane treatment of others.  2) Who influence their communities to change their behaviors 3) Who take action even at great risk to themselves in order to achieve that change. One such group that took on this feat was the American Anti Slavery Society (1833-70). A white man named William Lloyd Garrison led the group of over 10,000 members.  He along with other abolitionist whites, former slaves, and free blacks people, male and female, stood up against the inhumane treatment of Africans by distributing anti slavery propaganda, writing articles, preparing speakers to stand before crowds, and sharing their personal experiences of the atrocity of slavery. They were able to influence neighboring countries and Northern lawmakers by submitting petitions to Congress. They acted on their beliefs and supported such movements as the Underground Railroad that aided in the freedom of at least 200,000 slaves from the Southern states. In this unit students will be introduced to other significant Anti-Slavery heroes such as: Lucretia Mott, Frederick Douglass, Sojourner Truth, and Nat Turner.

The challenge of this somber unit, presented to students who are many generations removed from the ugly history of North American slavery, is to share the unit in an introspective way that enables them to become conscious of the effects of hate on the soul of a people. They will then be challenged to look at the issues closer to their own lives, such as bullying, that are prevalent in their communities and to be heroic to bring about change at their schools. The larger goal of this unit is for students to see themselves as heroes who (1) stand up against the inhumane treatment of others  (2)  influence their communities to change their behaviors and (3) take action even at great risk to themselves in order to change the culture of bullying at their school.

Olweus (1993), one of the pioneers on bullying research defined bullying as repetitive and intentional aggressive behavior by one individual or group against another in situations where there exists some sort of power differential between the bully and the victim in terms of physical size, social status, or other features. (as cited by Rettew D.C, Pawlowski S., 2016, pp.236). The definition of bullies, as defined in the context of American slavery, could be likened to slave owners and overseers.  The action of slaves owners (masters) fit the definition of bullying because they used their position and power to break the will of human beings for their personal gain. Overseers were given the job of stripping the slave of their identities, instilling fear, and forcing them to complete tasks on command. Overseers were an extreme example of Bullying but at their hands slaves were designated tasks against the wills.  They monitored the waking hours of slaves, and provided limited resources in order to ‘break the human being’ with torturous tactics to create an obedient slave. As students are made aware of the atrocity of slavery and the affects it had on the souls of women, men and children, they will be guided to see the negative affects bullying has on the souls of their peers.

Bullying affects the soul of their victims. According to recent research, young people who are bullied are at increased risk for negative psychological and emotional impacts including anxiety, depression, low self-esteem, alcohol and drug abuse, hostility, delinquency, self-harming behavior (particularly for girls), and violent or criminal behavior (particularly for boys) (Berlatsky, 2019). This unit will encourage students to become empathic toward bullying victims by learning of the effects of bullying. Students will become part of the solution of creating a safe climate for all students in their school community.

Researchers indicate that there are common features of programs that are effective in reducing bullying and victimization. These included the following three elements: (1) presence of parent and teacher training, (2) strict classroom rules for handling bullying, and (3) the implementation of a whole-school antibullying policy.( Rettew D.C, Pawlowski S., 2016, pp.241). These recommended anti bullying elements are adult centered. Students are part of the school community, however, and should be encouraged to take responsibility for creating a safe environment for all. To enable students to take personal responsibility, students will create posters to set a tone of acceptance of each other’s differences. Students will  also be encouraged not to be bystanders but “upstanders.” Upstanders are people who take action when they witness bullying. (stopbulling.gov)

According the Stop Bullying government website (2020), There are many things that bystanders to bullying can do to become upstanders:

  • Question the bullying behavior. Simple things like changing the subject or questioning the behavior can shift the focus.
  • Use humor to say something funny and redirect the conversation.
  • There is strength in numbers too! Bystanders can intervene as a group to show there are several people who don’t agree with the bullying.
  • Walk with the person who is the target of bullying to help diffuse potential bullying interactions.
  • Reach out privately to check in with the person who was bullied to let them know you do not agree with it and that you care. It makes a difference.
  • Be Someone’s Hero video in English or Spanish for an example of how to be an Upstander.

Appendix: The unit will implement the Pennsylvania State standards.  Lessons are structured to allow the students to inquire information by analyzing historical documents, engage in guided questioning, and producing individual or group works of Visual Aids to culminate learned material.

Content Objectives and Pennsylvania State Standards

As a result of this unit, students will be able to:

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including vocabulary specific to domains related to history/social studies. Standard – CC.8.5.6-8.D

*Define Slavery

*Define Plantation

*Define Humanity

*Define Fugitive

*Equality

*Define Abolitionist

*Define Bullying

Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary of the source distinct from prior knowledge or opinions Standard – CC.8.5.6-8.B

Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources. Standard – CC.8.5.6-8.A

*Read and Analyze the Following Books and Articles

*Read Books on Abolitionists

 

 

Integrate visual information (e.g., in charts, graphs, photographs, videos, or maps) with other information in print and digital texts. Standard – CC.8.5.6-8.G

*Watch Videos

*examine primary resources including short biographies of abolitionists and former slaves

*Create Hero posters

*Create Anti-Bullying Campaign – posters, commercial, music

Teaching Strategies

This unit will be taught to middle school students. It will begin by looking at slavery in the United States of America by examining primary documents, books and videos. Students will answer questions to determine the effects of slavery and determine the impact slavery had on women, men and children. They will learn how slaves were not allowed to own property, read, or marry without the permission of a Master. Students will learn how slavery was ended through the actions of men and women who opposed slavery. They will learn of famous abolitionists and what means they took to end slavery. Lastly, they will discuss the bullying issue that is happening at their schools, list possible solutions and develop a campaign to be used in the school setting.

Learning Strategies:

Step 1: Lesson Focus Question

Step 2: Fact Finding Mission

Step 3: Assessing Students Understanding

Classroom Activities

Lesson One: Treatment of American Slaves (lessons can be extended over several days)

Durations: This lesson can be completed over several days

Objectives:

Students will be able to use primary documents to determine the culture of slavery

Students will respond to the question “How they think it felt to be a Slave?”

Students will define the following words: Slavery, Plantation, Enslaved

Focus Question: In America, how were slaves treated? (20 min.)

Do Know: students will take a Gallery Walk – post pictures of primary documents around the classroom, student visit each picture and answer questions about each picture. Discuss student findings

Materials:

1) Primary Documents: (copies in appendix)

Slave auction at Richmond, Virgina https://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/98510266/

 The Whole black family at the Hermitage, Savannah, Ga

https://cdn.loc.gov/service/pnp/det/4a10000/4a18000/4a18100/4a18122r.jpg

 Sweet Potato Planting at Hopkinson’s Plantation https://cdn.loc.gov/service/pnp/ppmsca/11300/11398r.jpg

2) Gallery Walk worksheet  (in appendix)

3) Book: To be a Slave by Julius Lester

Fact Find  (20 minutes)

1) Define/Summarize Slavery in America, Enslave, Plantation

2) Read/Listen/Discuss  Portions of the book:  To Be a Slave by Julius Lester

(Lessons can last for the amount of days you choose to review  a chapter and plan your discussion and questions)

Chapter one: To be a slave
Chapter two: The auction block
Chapter three: The plantation
Chapter four: Resistance to slavery 1
Chapter five: Resistance to slavery 2
Chapter six: Emancipation
Chapter seven: After Emancipation

 

Assess Understanding

1)Discussion: Pause the Reading: To Be a Slave (prepare discussion questions)

2) Complete the Worksheet To Be a Slave

 

LESSON 2:  Abolitionists help to end Slavery (this lesson can be extended over several days)

Objectives:

Students will define Abolitionist, Humanity, Equality

Students will describe the work of Abolitionist

Students will identify character traits of abolitionist

Students will list ways slaves gained freedom

 

FOCUS QUESTION: If you were born into Slavery, what do you think could be done to gain your Freedom?

Do Know: Student will complete the Reading for Vocabulary Worksheet  (20 minutes). Student groups share and define one word with the class from their list. Create Word Wall

Materials: see list of Children’s books on Slavery / Abolitionist, Reading for Vocabulary Worksheet attached, Abolitionist character trait worksheet

Fact Find: (40 minutes)

1) Watch Video: choose an Abolitionist video book from list and prepare discussion question

2) Introduce the Underground Railroad, Read: The Underground Railroad for Kids From Slavery to Freedom with 21 Activities      By Mary Kay Carson

3) Choose an Activity from the book to complete with the class

4) students will complete Abolitionist character trait chart (copy in appendix)

 

Assess Understanding

1) Teacher’s observation during discussions

2) Students will write a summary of their chosen book explaining how the person helped end slavery

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LESSON 3: Unjust Use of Power

Objectives:

Students will define Bullying

Students will list the unjust treatment of Slaves

Students will list the unjust treatment of bullying victims

Students will analyze charts on bullying

Students will compare and contrast the effects of bullying and the  effects of oppression on the slave  [another possibility; compare and contrast what enslavers/bullies, get out of doing harm to others?]

 

FOCUS QUESTION: Are their similarities between the effects of slavery and the effects of bullying?

Do Know: Complete Bullying Worksheet / Discussion

Materials: see appendix for tables

Table #10.1 (students ages 12-18 who reported being bullied at school during the school year, by selected student and school characteristics)

Table #10.2 (students ages 12-18 who reported being bullied at school during the school year, by type of bullying and selected student and school characteristics)

Table # 10.3 ( students ages 12-18 who reported being bullied at school during the school year and, among bullied students, percentage who reported being bullied in various locations)

 

VIDEO: The Effects of Bullying on Victims https://youtu.be/Hr2Dk0QQ3Sw

 

Fact Find: Teacher instruct how to read Bullying Tables

Hand out tables 10.1-10.3 to students

Have students generate a question that can be answered by another student from each graph.

Students will write down their question and teacher will distribute questions to other groups of students

Discuss graph

 

Assessmment:

-student will answer other student’s question on the piece of paper

-teacher observes students use of graphs

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LESSON 4: ”Free To Be Me”,  Campaign against Bullying

Objectives:

Students will define Upstander – a person that stands up for a Bully

Student will define Bystander – a person that passively watches someone getting bullied

Students will create a list of Activities of an Upstander:

Students will produce bullying Visual to be used throughout the school community

 

FOCUS QUESTION: What can you do to be an Upstander? How can we share an Antibullying message to the school community?

Do Know: Students will list what they can commit themselves to do to be an Upstander

Materials:

Recommeded list for Upstanders (Stand up to Bullying,2020, http://standuptobullying.co.uk/resources/)

  1. Reporting hurtful messages I see online
  2. Supporting and welcoming new students in school
  3. Being friendly to someone I don’t know
  4. Sending a friendly message to someone who I see is being cyberbullied

 

Fact Find: share list of Visual Arts projects that school administration will allow students to produce for the school environment and get permission from principal.

  • students will create videos displaying Bystanders and Upstanders
  • students will create posters with the message FREE TO BE ME to be posted around school
  • Students will create posters sharing information on what to do if you are being bullied to be posted around school
  • Students will create pledge cards to end Bullying at school

 

Assessment: completed Visual Art to be displayed in school community

Resources

Books and Articles: (synopsis of books taken from google)

Henry Freedom Box by Ellen Levine-A stirring, dramatic story of a slave who mails himself to freedom by a Jane Addams Peace Award-winning author and a Coretta Scott King Award-winning artist. Henry Brown doesn’t know how old he is.

Freedom Over Me by Ashley Bryan – Using original slave auction and plantation estate documents, Ashley Bryan offers a moving and powerful picture book that contrasts the monetary value of a slave with the priceless value of life experiences and dreams that a slave owner could never take away.

Website: Freedom Over Me Curriculum Guide (pdf)

To Be a Slave by Julius Lester -A compilation, selected from various sources and arranged chronologically, of the reminiscences of slaves and ex-slaves about their experiences from the leaving of Africa through the Civil War and into the early twentieth century.

Never Caught, The Story of Ona Judge by Erica Armstrong, Kathleen Van Cleve-“A revelatory account of the actions taken by the first president to retain his slaves in spite of Northern laws profiles one of the slaves, Ona Judge, describing the intense manhunt that ensued when she ran away.”–NoveList.

The Underground Railroad for Kids From Slavery to Freedom with 21 Activities By Mary Kay Carson -The heroic struggles of the thousands of slaves who sought freedom through the Underground Railroad are vividly portrayed in this powerful activity book, as are the abolitionists, free blacks, and former slaves who helped them along the way.

Voice of Freedom A Story about Frederick Douglass by Maryann N. Weidt-Born a slave, Frederick Douglass grew up facing hunger, hard work, and terrible beatings. After overhearing that reading was the key to freedom, Frederick became determined to learn to read.

Slavery and the Law in Virginia (http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/)

Up From Slavery by Booker T. Washington – FULL AudioBook on You Tube-  The autobiography describes his personal experience of having to work to rise up from the position of a slave child during the Civil War, to the difficulties and obstacles he overcame to get an education.

The Price of Freedom: How One Town Stood Up to Slavery by Dennis Brindell Fradin, Judith Bloom Fradin, Eric Velasquez John Price took a chance at freedom by crossing the frozen Ohio river from Kentucky into Ohio one January night in 1856, the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 was fully enforced in every state of the union. But the townspeople of Oberlin, Ohio, believed there that all people deserved to be free, so Price started a new life in town-until a crew of slave-catchers arrived and apprehended him. When the residents of Oberlin heard of his capture, many of them banded together to demand his release in a dramatic showdown that risked their own freedom.

Emancipation Proclamation The Truimph of Jubilee by Tonya Bolden– this book offers readers a unique look at the events that led to the Emancipation Proclamation. Filled with little-known facts and fascinating details, it includes excerpts from historical sources, archival images, and new research that debunks myths about the Emancipation Proclamation and its causes.

Frederick Douglass: From Slavery to Statesman by Henry Elliot– Born into slavery, Douglass became an eloquent spokesperson for both blacks and women’s rights. During and after the Civil War, Douglass became a confidant of presidents Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson. Douglass also argued for African Americans to be allowed to join the Union army in the fight for their own freedom.

Many Thousand Gone: African Americans from Slavery to Freedom by Virginia Hamilton–  the history of slavery and the Underground Railroad in America. Thirty-five inspiring stories describe ingenious escapes, desperate measures, and daring protests of former slaves.

Videos: (synopsis taken from google)

Selma, Lord Selma  by Disney-movie  covers the following topics: racism, segregation, Jim Crow laws, police brutality, KKK, protest, and death for standing for a cause and then hope.

Biography of Harriet Tubman for Kids: American Civil Rights History for Children by Free School – Harriet Tubman is most famous for her courageous journeys back to the South to liberate slaves after she had won her own freedom. Born into slavery, she escaped to freedom as a young woman. Not content with freedom if her family could not be free, she returned over and over again to slave territory and led others north along the Underground Railroad. Once war broke out, Harriet Tubman served as a nurse, scout, and spy, leading an assault that liberated more than 750 slaves. She lived the rest of her long life as a free woman in New York.

My Friend Martin  produced by DIC Entertainment, L.P.-This is the story of a black teenager named Miles, who has to go on a class field trip to the museum of learning what Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. did for humanity, he thinks that he’d rather play baseball. But the trip turns into an exciting adventure when he and his best friend, Randy, who’s white, are sent back in time meeting Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. at several points during his life. Written by Anthony Pereyra <hypersonic91@yahoo.com>

 

The Impact of Bullying produced by AnitbullyingPro -The Diana Award Anti-Bullying Ambassador programme gives young people, parents and staff the skills and knowledge to tackle bullying in their schools both online and offline.  https://youtu.be/Hr2Dk0QQ3Sw

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SURVEY QUESTIONS

Sample bullying screening questions

Data from US Department of Health & Human Services. How to talk about bullying. Available at: www.stopbullying.gov. Accessed June 7,2020.

  • I’d like to hear about how school is going. How many good friends do you have in school? (Child) Is your child being picked on at school? (Parent)
  • Do you ever feel afraid to go to school? Why?
  • Do other kids ever bully you at school, in your neighborhood or online? Who bullies you? When and where does it happen? What do they say or do?
  • What do you do if you see other kids being bullied?
  • Who can you go to for help if you or someone you know is being bullied?
  • When you go for help, what is done about it?
  • Why do you think some kids bully other

 

 

 

 

 

 

GALLERY WALK WORKSHEET

Name______________________                            Document #_________

Date _______________________

 

DESCRIBE

What You See in

The Picture ?

REFLECT

How does it make

You feel?

Just or Unjust

Describe what you think the people are experiencing

 

 

 

 

   
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

Vocabulary in Context

Name:

Date:

Reading for Vocabulary Worksheet

  1. Scan the text for unfamiliar words and write them in the left

column of the list below.

  1. As you read the text, stop at the unfamiliar words and try to use context clues

to determine the meaning of the word.

  1. If you cannot determine the meaning of the word through context clues, use

a dictionary to help you.

Word Meaning from

Context Clues

Dictionary

Definition

1.    
 

2.

   
 

3.

   
 

4.

   
 

5.

   
 

6.

   
 

7.

   
 

8.

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Primary Source A

  • Title: Sweet potato planting, Hopkinson’s Plantation
  • Creator(s): Moore, Henry P., 1833-1911, photographer
  • Date Created/Published: [1862 April 8]
  • Summary: Photograph shows slaves working in the sweet potato fields on the Hopkinson plantation.
  • Reproduction Number: LC-DIG-ppmsca-11398 (digital file from original item, front)
  • Rights Advisory: No known restrictions on publication.
  • Access Advisory: Use digital images. Original served only by appointment because material requires special handling. For more information see,(http://www.loc.gov/rr/print/info/617_apptonly.html)

 

 

 

Primary Source B

  • Title: [The Whole black family at the Hermitage, Savannah, Ga.]
  • Related Names:
    Detroit Publishing Co. , publisher
  • Date Created/Published: [1907?]
  • Reproduction Number: LC-DIG-det-4a18122 (digital file from original)
  • Rights Advisory: No known restrictions on publication.
  • Call Number: LC-D4-34666 [P&P]
  • Repository: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/pp.print

 

 

Primary Source C

  • Title: Slave auction at Richmond, Virginia
  • Date Created/Published: 
  • Summary: African American woman being auctioned off in front of crowd of men.
  • Reproduction Number: LC-USZ62-15398 (b&w film copy neg.)
  • Rights Advisory: No known restrictions on publication.
  • Call Number: LOT 4422-A-1 <item> [P&P]
  • Repository: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 U

 

 

 

 

Bullying

Definition : The most commonly used definition of bullying was developed by Dr. Daniel Olweus and stresses three components: 1) aggressive behaviors that are 2) repeated and 3) involve a power imbalance favoring the perpetrator. According to this definition, an individual is a victim of bullying when he or she is exposed repeatedly over time to negative actions by one or more individuals and is unable to defend him or herself, excluding cases where two children of similar physical and psychological strength are fighting (Olweus, 1993; 1994).

 

Were the African slaves Bullied in America? Why or Why not? ______________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

During the time of American Slavery, who bullied the slaves? How?

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

Do you know of a peer that is currently being bullied or has ever been bullied?

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Have you ever been Bullied? Yes or No

Table #10.1(students ages 12-18 who reported being bullied at school during the school year, by selected student and school characteristics)

 

 

 

Table 10.2 (students ages 12-18 who reported being bullied at school during the school year, by type of bullying and selected student and school characteristics)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 10.3 (students ages 12-18 who reported being bullied at school during the school year and, among bullied students, percentage who reported being bullied in various locations)

 

 

Bibliography:

Gordon, Stewart. Shackles of Iron: Slavery Beyond the Atlantic. Cambridge, Mass, 2016.

The Quakers and Slavery Project (2007).

Quakers and Slavery.  Web:

(https://web.tricolib.brynmawr.edu/speccoll/quakersandslavery//)

Bowditch, W. I. (1849). Slavery and the Constitution. Boston: R. F. Wallcut.

Dewbury, A. (2007). The American School and Scientific Racism in Early American Anthropology. Histories of Anthropology Annual3(1), 121–147. doi: 10.1353/haa.0.0026

Willoughby, C. D. (2017). “His Native, Hot Country”1: Racial Science and Environment in Antebellum American Medical Thought. Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences72(3), 328–351. doi: 10.1093/jhmas/jrx003

Penn and Slavery Project website: http://pennandslaveryproject.org

Rettew, D. C., & Pawlowski, S. (2016). bullying. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America25(2), 235–242.

Berlatsky, N. (2015). Bullying. Greenhaven Press a part of Gale Cengage Learning.