Cart 0

How to Win a War Without Even Shooting: Haitian Revolution Strategy

Author: Lynn Gourinski Fahr


Overbrook High School

Year: 2015

Seminar: Roots of the American Empire

Grade Level: 7

Keywords: cholera, disease preventions, Haiti, high school history, History, middle school history, revolution strategies, yellow fever

School Subject(s): History, Social Studies

The world of the 17th and 18th century was a whirlwind of activity. Each nation wanted to flex their military muscle and show other countries that they were the greatest. It is in the year 1791-1804, that the Haitian Revolution showed the world that Haiti was its own nation. Slaves rose up to overtake the French in a war that took human lives in battle and at campsites. Disease, particularly Yellow Fever, was prevalent in the Haitian Revolution, causing many thousands of deaths of French troops. When all was said and done, Haiti prevailed to become its own nation, gaining respect from other countries as its own empire. Haiti became a place to learn about vaccinations and natural immunity of the human body.

Download Unit: Fahr-Lynn-unit.pdf

Did you try this unit in your classroom? Give us your feedback here.

Full Unit Text

This curriculum can be taught in history classes for grades 7-12 in conjunction with a health class currently studying a universal hygiene unit. As history classes are exploring the conquering of the world and wars/uprisings of different peoples, the classes will examine the thought behind keeping the base camps of troops sanitary and safe from disease. This lesson can be taught as a basic tenet of hygiene and preventable death. With some modifications, this lesson can be used by younger grades. As noted on the School District of Philadelphia’s website, in the lessons for disease and disorders, children are to “examine common communicable diseases, their causes, prevention and treatment”. Students also should “identify community based resources that can help families in need” such as walk in clinics, emergency rooms and community centers. The Philadelphia public schools curriculum also encourages students to “demonstrate the ability to determine appropriate first aid response for various situation”. Cholera can kill a normally healthy person in a few hours. Yellow fever has a high incidence of death as it is a viral disease. Medical treatment is critical in the victim’s survival. The most prudent objective in the health curriculum for the School District of Philadelphia is that children learn to “develop an individual plan for improving environmental health” in their community.


Empires. Land. Freedom. Much of the 17th and 18th century was spent looking for the empire that should be so rightly any given country’s. This empire was going to make countries rich and powerful. It was to be the envy of all other nations but it was going to come at a cost. The cost was in human lives, crops, or capital. There was always a cost to building an empire. Many times, the cost is seen in the death toll of wars. Seldom do educators realize the impact health and disease can have on growing or destroying said empires. As slave trade was flourishing in the West Indies, so came the illnesses and immunities of the African people. While slaves were controlled by slavemasters, they maintained their culture and hygiene. Slaves understood the hot, humid West Indies much better than the French or Spanish for whom they were forced to toil, Slaves had immunities to diseases like Yellow Fever that became an advantage in the late 17th century in Haiti. They also understood basic hygiene to avoid much of the cholera epidemic that was so prevalent at this time.


“Madison himself clearly understood that foreign markets were part of the sphere that had to be enlarged to ensure the continuation of republican institutions and of prosperity, and his successors had not forgotten the lesson.” (Williams, 1970). America looked for ways to become rich and vital on the world’s stage. The dream of “the concept of The City on the Hill thus became The Empire of the Globe”. (Williams, 1970). Here in America, agriculture was king. Other countries had made investments in islands in the Caribbean Sea and in the West Indies, such an example was Napoleon and the French creating an empire envious of the world but wrought with strife in Haiti.


Haiti was a hotspot in the Caribbean. It had mostly belonged to the French but had been taken over by the Spanish for a time also. Many fought for the empire of Haiti that would make them rich on the backs of the slaves. The Haitian Revolution occurred in 1791 but the beginning of the crisis begins much earlier. “In the 18th century, Saint Domingue (Haiti) became Frances most wealthy overseas port”. (Ott, 1973)  Slaves of sugar,coffee, and indigo plantations began to realize that infact over time, the population had risen in Saint Domingue had risen 30% from 4,336 in 1681 to 5,648 in 1713. (Garrigus, 2006) This meant that slaves in the early 1700’s outnumbered slave masters by 5:1.  “In 1789, about 30,000 freed slaves and about 500,000 slaves inhabited Haiti raising the ratio of slaves to whites to 10:1 coming into 1791.” (Ott, 1973) The population of slaves only continued to grow as the need for the products grew. Greed was taking hold of Haitian plantations and slaves were not willing to continue to struggle while others profited.


The French Revolution had a great impact on Saint Domingue’s population. Some of the white minority was split into Royalists, wanting to serve the King of France and Revolutionary Factions, those who wanted slaves to be free. While mixed raced populations campaigned for the civil rights of slaves, slaves in the northern part of Saint Domingue organized and planned a massive rebellion that began on August 22, 1791. Initally, American threw support behind the whites in the revolt. Civil commissioners were sent by the French to mediate the situation and quell the revolt. The new French government was against slavery but approved of the money gained through slaves working on coffee, sugar, and indigo in Haiti. Intervention from the British and Spanish to end the revolt over the 10 years to end the war also failed.(


Diseases such as Cholera and Yellow Fever were rampant throughout the Caribbean Sea in the 17th century through the 19th century. Cholera was very rapidly affecting the West Indies in the late 18th century. According to the Mayo Clinic, cholera is a bacterial disease that causes severe diarrhea and dehydration. Cholera is usually spread through water sources, although as a bacteria, it can be spread in other ways.


Currently, cholera is rare affecting only about 20, 000 people in the United States and world each year. It is bacterial in origin being spread by contact with contaminated surfaces such as door knobs, handshakes, sneezes and through untreated public drinking water. Symptoms of this disease are diarrhea, dehydration, muscle cramps, shock, and seizures. Medical treatment is a must for survival as this bacteria can kill a normally healthy person in just a few hours. (Mayo Clinic, 2014)


Cholera is caused by the bacterium, vibro cholerae. According to the World Health Organization, the last major outbreak in the United States was in 1911 as sewage and water treatment plants have chlorinated water for sanitation. Cholera is still seen in Africa, southeast Asia, Haiti and central Mexico. The bacteria, vibro cholerae produces a toxin called CTX in the small intestine of a person. The CTX binds to the wall of the small intestine and interferes with the normal flow of sodium and chloride in the body. Interfering with the sodium and chloride flow causes severe diarrhea leading to rapid fluid loss and loss of sodium, needed for bodily function. Infected individuals can lose up to a quart of liquid per hour which leads to death from dehydration.


Risk factors for contracting cholera are many. Poor sanitation facilities that cause human feces to be eliminated near drinking or bathing water is most common. The World Health Organization has procedures for maintaining proper distances for these items, People with reduced or non-existent stomach acid such as children elderly or people who overuse antacids may be at risk. The stomach does not have enough enzymes to kill the disease before it enters the small intestine in these individuals. Others beg ill in the household. As a bacteria, cholera can be spread in common ways. A high degree of sanitation must take place to avoid exposure to illness if someone close has cholera.


Other risk factors include having a type O blood type. There is no known reason why this is the case but thoughts from the World Health Organization indicate that an enzyme in the blood of other types of blood make for an uneasy attachment for the bacteria. Eating raw or undercooked shellfish can also cause cholera as cholera can adhere to the shells of shellfish and be accidentally ingested.


Cholera leads to a large loss of fluid very rapidly. This can cause dehydration, shock, or death in a few hours. Loss of fluids causes low blood sugar that causes the body to have no energy to fight the disease and seizures or death occurs. Great loss of fluid also lowers potassium levels in the body to interfere with heart and nerve function in the body. Kidney failure and shock occur as the waste builds up in the body.


While Cholera was ravaging most countries of the Caribbean, Yellow Fever was rampant in Haiti. In fact, the United States found that Virginia in recent years recorded about 100 cases of yellow fever among it’s population. (Peterson, 1995). “Yellow fever was at least as important as L’Ouverture in defeating the French army in Haiti.” (Peterson, 1995)  According to the Mayo Clinic, yellow fever is spread by a particular mosquito, called the Aedes Aegypti mosquito. It can live and thrive in and near human habitations and also breed in clean water. The mosquito bites an infected person with Yellow fever. The virus gets into the mosquito’s salivary glands then spreads the disease to all other host it continues to bite. Humans and monkey’s are most likely to get this disease.


The effects of yellow fever will occur a few days after being bitten by the mosquito. Yellow fever occurs in several stages. In the acute or mild case, people are symptomatic with a high fever, severe headache, nausea, and vomiting of black fluids, blood or other fluids. The infected will have light sensitivity, dizziness, a loss of appetite, muscle aches in the back or legs, and red eyes, tongue, or face. These signs and symptoms of the yellow fever disease will improve or be gone in a few days.


The Mayo Clinic also emphasizes that yellow fever can be deadly. As this is a viral disease, there is no cure. If the disease does not go away in a few days, the person enters the toxic phase of the disease. During this phase the skin and eyes yellow (jaundice) as organs are now affected. Abdominal pain becomes severe and vomiting of blood is common. Blood may also seep from the eyes, nose and mouth. Kidney and liver failure is common as the heart rate drops to a dangerously slow level. Brain functions also morph into delirium, seizures, and a coma. If a recovery does occur, it takes several weeks to months to clear. During the recovery, fatigue, jaundice and secondary bacterial infections can occur such as pneumonia of blood infections.


“US political leaders—many slave owners, reacted to the emergence of Haiti as a state borne out of a slave revolt with ambivalence, at times providing aid to put down the revolt, and later in the revolution, providing support to Toussaint L’Ouverture’s forces.”( Thomas Jefferson believed in the French Revolution and it’s ideals but he was also a slave holder and as a slave holder was hostile toward a slave victory.  As a Virginia slaveholder, he worried about a revolt here in the country. As such, he favored  limited aid to suppress the revolt and suggested that a compromise be worked out, Alexander Hamilton, Secretary of the Treasury, largely agreed. There were fears of the impact the revolt would have on the country. That result was seen in 1793 when the capital of Saint Domingue was set ablaze and refugees swam to any ship in the harbor, The French navy then brought them to the American cities of Norfolk (VA), Baltimore (MD), New York City (NY), and Philadelphia (PA). (


“In the Haitian expedition, yellow fever typically lead to delirium, coma and death” (Peterson, 1995) for Napoleons forces and the French. “The West Indies was a death trap for whites without immunity (Peterson, 1995) By the end of April, 1802, yellow fever had ravaged the French troops. Lecher had lost about a third of his original forces to yellow fever making it one of the most deadly epidemics know to date. By June of 1802, the French were losing 30-50 men each day. (Peterson, 1995)


With the loss of lives from yellow fever, L’Ouverture saw an opportunity to negotiate with the French to maintain the island. He was invited to dine with French leaders to discuss this offer but was captured and imprisoned in France. At this point, yellow fever was killing 4/5th (80%) of LeClerc’s French troops. LeClerc was struck by yellow fever and died October 22, 1802. (Peterson, 1995) He died in a French prison in 1804. (Ott, 1973) With the void of leader L’Ouverture, the rebels were lead by Dessalines and again attacked the French. Jean-Jacques Dessalines was a former slave now General lead troops against French forces and defeated them in Battle of Vertieres on November 18, 1803. (Ott, 1973)


General Rochambeau replaced LeClerc and saw the disease ravage 20,000 more French replacements. The French only saw about 3,000 men return from the war because a vast majority  had died from yellow fever. With this large defeat, Napoleon realized in empire was not to be involving Haiti and was forced to sell the Mississippi Valley he owned, to the young United States of America for $15 million. (Peterson, 1995)


There are several reasons why the yellow fever tipped the scales for the Haitians during the revolution. The first was that the environment was perfect for yellow fever. The French had never been exposed to such a disease and had no immunities to the disease. The yellow fever mosquito were very plentiful in 1802-1803. During this time, spring rains made breeding possible. Many quagmires and swamps that surrounded French ports on Haiti consumed troops as soon as they off loaded their French ships. The weather was hot and humid, very different from where troops were used to being and this stressed the soldiers’ bodies to wear down their immune system. Finally, as the French and slaves destroyed cities with their fighting, shops with extra clothing and shoes were also lost. Clothes and shoes were not to be found thus exposing the French troops. Without adequate clothing, the French were even more exposed to Yellow Fever. As part of Napoleon’s strategy, LeClerc was not to bunk down in the mountains. He was ordered to stay near the ports and in the low areas around the ports where there were more mosquitoes.”  It was long known that mortality from yellow fever and other diseases could be reduced by moving to the mountains.” (Buckley, 1985) Napoleon rejected that strategy, thus it cost him in land and human lives.


As this is a lesson that can be adapted form grades 7-12 comfortably, the students can be regular education students, special education students, or students in self contained rooms for their education. The focus is on disease prevention and using universal procedures regardless of the circumstances of where the student is. Students will meet in a basic 50 minute class for the total of four (4) days to receive this information. Students will need access to a library, computers/computer lab, computer basic understandings, and art/music classes.


The objectives of this unit are as follows:


–SWBAT (Students Will Be Able To) differences in bacterial and viral illnesses IOT

(In Order To) summarize potential solutions/cures for illnesses


–SWBAT identify three causes of illness/disease breakouts IOT recommend ways individuals and communities can remain disease free.


–SWBAT identify three reasons why wars make for disease prone areas adding to the loss of life in addition to actual war casualty IOT maintain health and hygiene in spite of war like conditions in a region


–SWBAT understand that wars affect countries in more than one way when they happen among peoples IOT offer compromise solutions/mediation to groups of people to prevent large scale wars.


Students will combine lessons on the Haitian Revolution and with knowledge of diseases and disease transmission. The students will use pair/share speculating the when, where and how diseases are spread.  They will use peer groups and class activities to visually and playfully learn from each other how disease is spread then apply to wartime. Students will also participate in mini-research/independent research to understand how wars of any type, but most specifically the Haitian Revolution, helped formulate universal precautions for healthy behavior. This project will help align with using technology and presenting materials they found for the class in a technological format. (ire. power point, prezi, etc)

Classroom Activities

Day 1:



Wall map of Caribbean Sea with countries easily identified

White board/different colored markers

skicky notes in varying colors


laptop computers with internet access

magic markers

newsprint paper—1 per group


Objective: SWBAT identify where Haiti is located IOT explain why there were so many slaves and why it was able to impact the Caribbean trade


Do Now: List all the countries in the Caribbean Sea. Where is the Caribbean located?


Direct Instruction:  ask students what they know of Caribbean Sea. Possible answers—hurricanes start here, cruises, vacations. Ask a student to come to map and find Haiti. What is unique about it? What country is it attached to? How does this attachment impact the countries?


Independent Instruction: In smaller groups, ask students to find 10 facts about Haiti today—agriculture, people, customs, language, etc.  Student  groups will create a collage of information about Haiti and post clearly in front of room.


Allow each group 5 minutes to share facts found with class. Group with the most original and unique facts will earn 5 extra points on quiz  Haiti at the end of unit.


Exit Ticket: List three facts you thought were interesting and write a paragraph of 5-7 sentences explaining what you thought interesting about them.


Homework: Write quick ideas about how Haiti was involved in slave trade and how they were different from other countries in the area? Which countries were hit with cholera?


Day 2:



Wall map of Caribbean Sea with countries easily identified

White board/different colored markers

sticky notes in varying colors


laptop computers with internet access

magic markers

newsprint paper—1 per group

index cards—about 50

screen/Promethean board

dongle/cables for computer



Objective: SWBAT identify how diseases are spread IOT understand their impact on populations of people and precautions while using standard hygiene practices


Do Now: Introduction game. As students enter the room, they are handed an index cards. No explanation is made concerning the dot. There are 3 different colored dots. All student get a dotted card.


All students are to get up and introduce themselves to five other students. As they chat, the students share one “favorite” with the other person as the people sign each others cards and shake hands. When the card has five names and the person has shared “favorites”, they will sit. When the class is sitting, the teacher will explain the dots.


One dot is for a bacterial virus. It is caused by bacteria and can be killed with an antibiotic for a doctor/medical professional. One dot is for a viral virus. This disease cannot be cured only the symptoms can be lessened, When someone gets a virus, it may last forever and kill a person (HIV) or just be inconvenient (Herpes). Other viruses have very short life spans and die in a few days or weeks, thus leaving the body weakened but now immune to future sever illness. The last dot represents people who use good hygiene (hand washing) and are vaccinated against illnesses. These people, though exposed were not made ill because of good behaviors and medical care.


Ask students to raise hands for the first colored dot. Who shook hands with these dotted people? Who shook the hand to the next dot? Students will see how bacteria, viruses and proper medical care can impact their lives and apply to larger populations.


How can diseases wipe out populations of people? Take five minutes to describe your thoughts from this experience. Must have 5-7 lines.


Direct Instruction: Discussion on cholera. What it is(bacterial)? Can it be cured/prevented (yes)? Discuss Universal Precautions. Discuss signs/symptoms. Can people die from it (yes)? Emphasis needs to placed on the need for immediate medical care to prevent death from dehydration.


Independent Instruction: Students watch video   “The story of Cholera”. 4:29 minutes.

Students will take guided notes/notes on disease and disease prevention for cholera in communities. Share out in small groups of 3-4 students.


Exit Ticket: List 3 ways cholera or other diseases can be spread.

Identify the solutions/cures for prevention with disease.


Homework: Make a sketch/collage/rap/ essay about Universal precautions and how important they are in our daily lives.


Day 3:



Wall map of Caribbean Sea with countries easily identified

White board/different colored markers

skicky notes in varying colors


laptop computers with internet access

magic markers

newsprint paper—1 per group

index cards

screen/Promethean board

dongle/cables for computer



Objective: SWBAT identify how diseases are spread IOT understand their impact on populations of people and precautions while using standard hygiene practices


Do Now:What are vaccinations? Why do people get vaccinated? How does this help to keep a person healthy?


Think for a minute and write quick notes to the questions. Pair up with the person directly to your right. Share your ideas with your partner. Create one answer for the reporting out to class.


Direct Instruction: Ask student groups to share with the class, the answers they found while working. The teacher quickly writes them on newsprint. With each group that reports, the teacher should use a different color marker. If information is similar, the teacher should circle original written phrase in new group color. Idea is to have several same ideas circled in different colors as students are following lesson.


Depending on the level of the class, teacher will show video on Yellow Fever. Teacher will stop video at key moments to reinforce ideas class had in pre-class activity. Class will discuss how Yellow Fever impacts the lives of cultures and communities.


Independent Instruction: Students will independently, prepare a news story on Yellow Fever based on what they know, saw or can research in class. In can be a television news clip or a written piece to be seen in a newspaper. Scripts and news articles will be handed in for class credit.


Exit Ticket: List three new facts about viruses and Yellow Fever you have learned. Turn to your partner on the left and share your new found knowledge.


Homework: Ask your parents what vaccinations you have had in your life. What diseases did they protect against? Why might some families decide not to vaccinate children?


Day 4:



Wall map of Caribbean Sea with countries easily identified

White board/different colored markers

skicky notes in varying colors


laptop computers with internet access

magic markers

newsprint paper—1 per group

index cards

screen/Promethean board

dongle/cables for computer



Objective: SWABT identify how diseases impact war strategies IOT understand how the Haitian Revolution was won by several strategies, planned and unplanned.


Do Now: Find a partner. In pairs, share the information on your vaccination record and any information you were given surrounding the vaccination process. Is it similar to your partner? Why do we have a universal vaccination process in this country for children in schools? Be ready to share your answers. Give 5 minutes to keep students on task.


Direct Instruction: Discuss the three reasons Yellow Fever helped win the Haitian Revolution. What did the mosquito like about Haiti? Why were the soldiers not up to fighting the slaves and the mosquitoes?


Independent Instruction: Break group into smaller groups. Assign scenarios for being soldiers in Haiti during revolt from France or as slaves fighting to save throe country and gain freedom. What is the strategy? Who is the leader and why? What are the rules of the war and how do you know? Where do you sleep and eat?


Exit Ticket:What side were you on in the war? Do you think the strategy your group created would win the revolution for your country? What specific tactics did your group divide?


Homework: What was the overall impact of the Haitian Revolution? Do you think the slaves would still have claimed freedom if illness had not killed many troops? Review facts that indicated the Yellow Fever helped the revolution to end as it did. Write a paragraph explaining your ideas.

Annotated Bibliography

Garrigus, John D., Before Haiti: Race and Citizenship French Saint Domingue. New York, NY:Palgrove Mac Millian Publishers, 2006.

A visual lecture in two parts. The first video is basic on how Haiti got into the war and it lasts about 27 minutes. The second video is also illustrated and lasts an=bout 17 minutes and covers more specific soldiers in the war and the geography of the war.


May Clinic Newsletter (Online). April 5, 2014. World Health Organization. CDC & Prevention: Cholera International Association for Medical Assistance Travelers. Packed full of signs and symptoms of the disease. Great teaching reference.


Ott, Thomas O., The Haitian Revolution 1791-1804. Knoxville, TN., University of Tennessee, 1973. Online excerpt found at    Breaks down the smaller parts of the revolution into simple parts to understand why it was the black slaves even attempted to overthrow the slave owners.


Peterson, R. K. D (1995). “Insects, Disease, and Military History: Napoleonic Campaigns and Historical Perception”.  American Entomologist. 41:147-160. Very detailed information on the Haitian War and how Yellow Fever helped to kill some of the French and their allies to help the slaves overcome and will their freedom.


Popkin, Jeremy D., (2014). The Haitian Revolution: Another Path to Emancipation.                                                    Online. A simplified explanation of events of the Haitian Revolution along with class discussion questions/answers for use in classes or for research. (online). Helpful in listing facts. This site has some graphs and charts but it a website of purely facts. (3/20/12). “The Story of Cholera” . Online. .A narrative cartoon that quickly and easily shows how easily cholera can be spread and how easily it can be prevented with simple steps. Appropriate for grades 3-12.


Sawyer, Jewel. (9/18/14).. “The Deadly History of Yellow Fever”. Online. informative documentary explaining the history of Yellow Fever. Part of a series called “The American Experience” the piece is 53:02 minutes long. Can be used in entirety or in segments.



Williams, A.W. (1970).  The Roots of Modern American Empire: A Study of the Growth and Shaping of Social Consciousness in a Marketplace Society”. Vintage Books. New York. Very factual resource for the teacher to gather and understand the timetable of events that brought the new America to realize it’s own potential as an empire.


World Health Organization. “Yellow Fever—An Animation (School Project)”. Online. Short 4:01 minutes illustrated with the health aspects of how yellow fever affect people. Easily used for younger children, grades 3-12. Good introduction to facts to be shared with students about immunity and viral diseases.


For the health education component, the following PA standards will be used.


  1. 1. Concepts of Health
  2. Identify and know the location and function of the major body organs and systems.

*Circulatory  *respiratory *muscular *skeletal*digestive


  1. Identify types and causes of common health problems of children

*Infectious diseases (e.g., colds, flu, chickenpox)





10.2.    Healthful Living


  1. Identify personal hygiene practices and community helpers that promote health and prevent the spread of disease.
  2. Analyze the interrelationship between environmental factors and community


*public health policies and laws/health promotion

*disease prevention

*individual choices/maintenance of environment


10.3.    Safety and Injury Prevention


  1. Explain and apply safe practices in the home, school and community.

*emergencies –natural disasters

* personal safety –safety for self and community

*communication—share information for betterment of community


For the Historical/English aspect of this curriculum, the following may be used. Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to analyze cultural, economic, geographic, political and social relations to…


               8.4   World History


  1. Evaluate the significance of individuals and groups who made major political and cultural contributions

*Political and Military Leaders (e.g., Askia Daud, Simon Bolivar, Napoleon Bonaparte)

*Cultural and Commercial Leaders (e.g., Chinua Achebe, Gabriel Garcia Marquez, Christopher Columbus)

*Innovators and Reformers (e.g., Nelson Mandela, Louis- Joseph Papineau, Mohandas Gandhi, Alexander Fleming)


  1. Analyze how conflict and cooperation among social groups and organizations    impacted world History through 1500 in Africa, Americas, Asia, and Europe

*Domestic Instability

*Ethnic and Racial Relations

*Labor Relations

*Immigration and Migration

*Military Conflicts

*Documents, Writings and Oral Traditions (e.g., Declaration of the International Conference on Sanctions Against South Africa; Monroe Doctrine, Communist Manifesto, Luther’s Ninety-five Theses)

*Artifacts, Architecture and Historic Places (e.g., Robben Island, New York World Trade

                   Center, Hiroshima Ground Zero Memorial, Nazi concentration camps)

*Historic districts (e.g., Timbuktu, Centre of Mexico City and Xochimilco, Taj Mahal and Gardens, Kremlin and Red Square)


8.3 United States History


  1. Evaluate how continuity and change throughout history has impacted belief systems and religions, commerce and industry, innovations, settlement patterns, social organization, transportation and roles of women since 1450.