Teaching Morals Through the Lenses of Social Media

Author: Stephanie Robinson

School/Organization:

John Barry Elementary School

Year: 2018

Seminar: Philosophy, Science & Society

Grade Level: 5-12

Keywords: Analyzing arguments, Critical thinking, ELA activity, ethics, Making connections, Morality, Personal Identity, philosophy, Political thought, Questioning, social justice

School Subject(s): Special Education, Social Studies

Social Media has become a way of life for society. People from all walks of life engage in social media as a way of communicating with long lost family and friends, reading about the latest trends, keeping up with latest news on celebrities they like, or on the downside use it for cyber bullying, post negativity, or seeking their fifteen minutes of fame. Social media tends to bring out the best and worst in people’s behaviors. Social Media allows people anonymity, whereof they can create a façade, and behave in ways that can be morally unacceptable. Students access social media on many different platforms. They have Facebook, Twitter, Instagram or Snapchat just to name a few. This unit will focus on how social media affects students socially and behaviorally. It will focus on having students view how social media can impact their judgment, and have them behave in ways that are morally unacceptable. As a Special Education teacher, teaching students positive behavior is an integrated part of their curriculum. Positive behaviors teach students how to set high expectations and goals for themselves. It teaches students to not compromise their morals in order to be accepted by their peers, or do something they may regret later. When students do not comprise their morals, they learn how to handle inappropriate or uncomfortable situations without giving in to peer pressure. They can apply the learned or taught concepts of right from wrong to make sound judgments, and not feel guilty about their choice.

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Rationale

Morals are taught to children during their developmental stage in the home, community and school environment. The teaching of morals is based upon societal norms regarding what is right from wrong. When children are taught morals they tend to know right from wrong, and tend to abide by societal standards. They tend to understand that moral decisions not only affect them, but their family, community and school environments. Schechtman (1995) poses the question of what makes a person who they are based upon their “beliefs, values, desires, and other psychological features”. Therefore, a person may not truly know who they are based upon they may be a different person at different times in their lives. They present to the world, friends and family a person who they may not really be. Thus creating an illusion, and perhaps a perpetration of themselves for others to see. Schechtman (1995) states a person’s narrative self-constitution view allows a person to make up lies and believe the lies about themselves in order to “acknowledge a deep and intimate connection between personal identify and human identity”. Therefore, a person’s figmentation of their imagination plays a pivotal role in who they actually are, who they want people to think they are, and their personal identity of who they see themselves as. In today’s society, social media plays a pivotal role regarding student’s behaviors and attitudes. Regardless of what a student is taught or may believe morally, social media has an impact on how students behave and their moral development. Hannam & Echeverria (2009) stated in order for students to make better judgments globally they need to be educated to use higher order thinking skills to think critically, creatively and caringly in order to deal with challenges appropriately. The role of social media and how it affects students morally will provide dialogue for students to engage in to discuss how social media impacts them to behave in unethical and immoral ways. When people share their experiences, it can be, but not limited to their “own prejudices, misunderstandings and ignorance of others” (Hannam & Echeverria, 2009). When students access social media they tend to post events/stories that are relevant to them at that time, whether it be negative or positive. Hannam & Echeverria (2009) states when students are engaged in conversations with their peers or adults, they bring their own ideas to the story. When students make post about what they have experienced, they do not think how their postings can negatively affect their morals or character in the home setting, in school or in the community. The impact of social media is an ongoing conundrum, and this unit will have students view how it comprises their morals, as well as have them think of accessing social media in a more positive light. This unit will address morals based upon how students view what is posted on social media, their responses to the post, and their morals in relations to their responses and judgment of the post. Students will use juxtaposition to demonstrate their views, and write about their differences. The students will use critical thinking and high order thinking skills to address their perceptions of right and wrong.

Background

In today’s society it seems that people operate on moral relativism. There truths and beliefs are what they have learned from their cultural upbringing or society. They seem to interpret their actions in a psychological egotistical aspect. That is, they interpret everything in terms of their own truths and values, which can seem as a selfish act. Pojman (1996) states when we learn morals it is learned unconsciously because it is customary to what we have been taught, what has traditionally been passed onward from generation to generation, and our own habits, which the saying goes is hard to break. The concept of what is right or wrong lies in the eyes of the beholder, and is hard to prove based upon one’s perception of what he or she has been taught is right or wrong. Therefore, one cannot condone another for what they consider rights or wrongs because they are not looking at life through another person’s lenses. Pojman (1996) believes people behave the way they do because people have different views of what is right and wrong morally. People behave and act the way they do depend on the society they live in. No society has the same rules and guidelines relating to morals. Therefore, one should not expect one to understand where they are coming from if they were not brought up with the same societal rules. Therefore, when students post on social media, and it may seem wrong to others, in their society it may be acceptable, so to them there is no harm created. Pojman (1996) stated “there are no absolute or objective moral standards binding on all people”. People will make judgments based upon their cultures and morals. Therefore, there is not right or wrong according to one’s own subjective thinking. Before the onset of social media, people conversed using the telephone, or writing letters. People experienced more open and reciprocal conversations. Before, social media and the internet, learning was based upon students watching TV, visiting the library to check out books to read, as well as learning the Dewey Decimal System to find a book, or purchase newspapers to get a daily do now or current event for the next day school lesson.

Life was not so easy as to just put the information in the search engine, and you have what you are looking for. If something was not known, information was accessed by conversing with others, dictionaries, encyclopedias, or “picking someone’s brains”. With the onset of the internet and social media, information was obtained with the touch of a finger. People did not have to have reciprocal conversation, but rather people became more introverted and isolated because they no longer have to have interpersonal conversations with others. In today’s society, in order to communicate with one another a person only has to log in to their social media account, unless they have an app on their phone for instant access. They do not have travel to the post office to mail a letter, wait until it gets to its destination, and then wait for a return response. They do not have to pick up the phone to call someone in hopes of the person answering the phone, so they can have someone to converse with. Instead, the only thing they have to do is link up to the social media site, and they are able to converse with many people at one time. They are able to connect to friends of friends, and family members they may have never met. They are able to converse with strangers from different nations and countries just by pressing a button. The simplicity of accessing the internet from the comfort of ones’ home to converse with others, learn what is going on in the world, or just surfing on social media is like Ockham’s razor “All things being equal the simplest solution tends to be the best one.” (Cycleback, ND), meaning what may seem simple is not really simple because there is complexity and unforeseen sources that are not visibly present. The unit will focus on social media and how it changes or alters a student’s perception, knowledge and thinking of what is right and what is wrong according to societal standards. It will examine good and bad behaviors of students when they are posting comments or pictures on social media. Or, when they are viewing other people pictures and comments, and they write a respond to those pictures or comments. The research will focus on the concepts of morality, and why students go against their morals and values to post negativity and misinformation about themselves, and/or other students just to receive likes or stir up controversy. Students will be given the definition of morality, and questioned about their morals, values and truths through their lenses. Morality will address a student’s critical thinking skills in relations to self-discipline, and self-questioning of their actions and motives. The unit will be used to demonstrate to students the importance of being true to oneself, and how to appropriately behave on social media in relations to their morals and values. During the implementation of this unit, students will be given the history of communication before social media and blogging became the norm for writing and sending messages. According to Hendricks (2013) the United States began in 550 B.C. People began sending and receiving instant telegraphs in 1792. In 1890, the telephone was invented. Which led to the radio being invented in 1891. It took 49 years later before the super computer was invented in 1940. Twenty years later, the internet was created by CompuServe in the 1960’s. The virtual newsletter followed in 1979, and by the 1980’s, we had instant relay chats. It took about seventeen years later, and social media became the norm in 1997, and two years later “blogging” was the new term. Today’s student seems to believe the induction of social media began with Facebook, then other social media sites such as Instagram, and Snapchat followed. They seem to not realize “social media’ extends back to the times when writing and sending letters via the post office, or even messages in a bottle were the norm. In 2006, there were over 14 million youth, ages 12-17 using Social Media sites, and adults were accessing Social Media sites at increasing rates as well (Mitchell, K.; Finkelhor, D.; et al 2010). As of 2018, Emarketer statistics show that more than 3.1 million children under age 11 have access and utilize Facebook, even though the legal age to set up a Facebook account is 13 years old.

In today’s present day society, the proliferation of social media is a way of life whether it be negative or positive. According to research by the Pew Research Center (2018), people between the ages of 18-29 (81%) use Facebook as its prime social media site. Sixty percent (60%) of high school or under use it less. When it was first inducted social media was originally meant to be a positive experience because it allowed family and friends to stay connected. It allowed its users across the nations to communicate with one another, view pictures of family and friends, and connect with people from different backgrounds, ethnicities, religions, and cultures. It helped people build social relationships, and learn how to effectively communicate with each other. It allowed the police to solve crimes because criminals seem to post their activities on social media. If students post fights or students behave in an inappropriate way, administrators at the schools are able to use the post to address the situation with the parties involved. It seems adults or children do not think about what they are posting, and how it can impact their lives and the lives of others. However, Social Media is also used in a negative way. Social media seems to make people feel they have to one up someone by posting something better than the person posted. Social Media creates envy, jealousy, and hatred because someone may believe that what you are posting is the absolute truth, and they became jealousy of your life, and wish they could have your life, or the life you present you live. It is a platform for people to cyber bully each other, scam one another, lie to each other, and post negativity about someone. It allows adults and children to spew hatred and condemnation about someone they may dislike, and post so others can dislike the person as well even if they have never met that person in real time. According to Pfeifer (2015) Generation Y, or Generation Me (GenMe) users are able to be aggressive and obnoxious online because they can hide behind the façade they have created. They are able to remain anonymous because they do not have to meet the person face to face. They can use deceptive tactics such as “Catfishing”, “Trolling”, “Cyberbullying”, or “Cyber stalking”. According to Rouse (2014), catfishers use the internet (Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Snapchat, Tumblr, etc.) to set up fake accounts to hide their true identity for deceptive practices. Trolling is similar to catfishing except the “troller’ uses vile language to demean and cause harm to others Moreau (2018). Trolling and Catfishing can lead to “cyberbullying and/or stalking” and vice versa. Lazuras, Barkoukis, Ourda, Tsorbatzoudis (NA) defined cyberbullying as “a form of aggression that takes place in cyberspace and is utilized by contemporary information and communication technologies (ICTs). Unlike traditional face-to-face bullying, cyberbullying provides total anonymity to the aggressor, and can reach a wide audience”. Abshier, Allen, Anderson, et al (2012) stated cyberstalking occurs frequently among college students in the United States and European countries. It entails a person accessing and misusing electronic devices to access the internet in order to harass a person they may or may not know. Pfiefer (2015) stated there was a high correlation between internet users and people who exhibited mental health disorders. Therefore, when the internet and social media sites are accessed, users should be cognizant of what information they are posting because they can attract unwanted attention or followers. Research has demonstrated time and time again that Social Media can create a false reality and perception of others. When one reads other’s postings, no one really knows that person’s back story. They only see what one puts out there for others to see. The postings could be someone perpetrating a fraud, but the user would not know that because they tend to believe what is read. Another negative aspect of Social Media is users may not realize Social Media uses algorithms to determine their traits and habits. Once the algorithms are analyzed, a person’s preferences of what they view online is being tracked, evaluated and combined into data. When the person uses the search engine or Social Media sites they are then “fed” information according to their analyzed user preferences. They may not realize they are seeing information from the same people even though there are millions of users on the internet and Social Media sites. Therefore, lies, propaganda, and possible untruths are being disseminated to the person. At the onset of Social Media there were no filters. People were able to post whatever they felt like posting whether it was right or wrong or good or bad. There were no consequences for their actions. However, with so many people being bullied, harassed or their identities being stolen, Social Media sites have taken security measures to attempt to deter the negativity. People tend to use Social Media at inappropriate times, especially students. Bolkan (2015) conducted a poll, and noted “Nearly nine of 10 — 87 percent — of teachers have not incorporated social media into their classrooms…more teachers, 62 percent, said they are reluctant to incorporate social media in their classrooms than in 2013, when 55 percent reported such hesitation”. Bolkan (2015) also noted that there is a vast majority (82%) of teachers who do not incorporate social media in the classroom setting because of fear of conflict with their students, and/or the parent(s) of the students. They were also reluctant to use social media because 20 percent felt students know more about technology they they do, and they felt it was not a great educational resource.

With the proliferation of Social Media, there are more students who use their cellphones to access Social Media. Students will post how their day is going, not realizing someone may be tracking their every move. They might post negative comments about their classmates and teachers not realizing this can be harassment. It seems to not matter as long as they are posting or reading what is happening on Social Media. When students post on Social Media, and they get a signal someone has responded to what their post, they tend to want instant gratification, and want to read it immediately. They seem to not be concerned about the repercussions if they are in class, or perhaps at work. They will use social media when driving, when walking, when eating, in most cases throughout the entire day. Social Media has become a way of life, and the more” likes” one can get from others, the more that person seems to feel empowered and accepted. This unit on morals is based upon how students view themselves based upon the morals and values instilled in them, and how they translate these values when reading information on Social Media. This unit will demonstrate how students might deter from the righteous path, and allow negative actions to bring conflict and discernment between what is right and what is wrong. The unit will address that being respectful and compassionate toward others is far better than being disrespectful and devoid of feelings.

Essential Questions

1. What does having morals mean to you? Please define.

2. Does social media comprise a student’s morals by allowing anonymity, or “fake accounts”?

3. If you can change and/or delete a negative post you created would you change and/or delete it? Why or Why not?

4. If you noticed someone “cyberbullying, trolling, cyberstalking or cyberbullying” someone on Social Media would you speak up? Why or Why not?

5. What are the common themes you and your peers discussed regarding morals? Do you share different or same themes?

Objectives

This unit is intended for elementary students in grades 6th-8th, but it can also be adapted for students in grades 9th-12th.  The unit can be adapted into a literacy block classroom setting. It can also be incorporated during character education or when students receive counseling.

Objectives for this unit include:

  • Understand what are good and bad morals, and how it impacts your life.
  • Define what morals you are instilled with, and how you apply these morals.
  • Given understanding of how social media works and what you post is never deleted, students will be able to read, understand, and respond to informational text in a social media post. Students will be able to make connections to the post, understand what the post is stating and incorporate Bloom’s Taxonomy Action Words (Cornell, 2009) to facilitate vocabulary acquisition.
  • Understanding how social media changes your views behaviorally, socially, and morally
  • Identify how social media impacts your life
  • Develop writing skills to write a structured paragraph, and speaking skills to discuss how they feel about social media
  • Improve reading, writing, and comprehension skills
  • Analyzing how communication online is different from communication in person

Strategies

The strategies will assist students with understanding what they are being taught by giving a clear and concise skill to help students learn. When the strategies are incorporated into a student’s lesson it allows for the lesson to be differentiated, and the students are able to practice the skills to improve upon their writing, thinking, reading, and speaking skills. The following strategies will be implemented to facilitate higher order thinking skills, and for students to question and research what they are learning, and have learned.

Think Aloud – The Think Aloud will be incorporated during the lesson on morals and social media. The Think Aloud will be incorporated to have discussions about what the students know, learned, and what like to know about a particular subject. Students will engage in open dialogue about their morals, and how they positively use social media. After a five-minute discussion, the teacher will direct the lesson towards how social media comprises a student’s morals by making them behave in ways they would not do otherwise. Vocabulary such as “trolling”, “catfishing” “cyber bullying” and “stalking” will be discussed. The teacher will discuss how these types of negative behavior can have a profound effect on someone who is on the receiving end of the negativity.

Socratic Strategy – Socratic Strategy will be employed by having students review a post about morals, and write five to six open-ended questions about the post in relation to their morals. The strategy will allow the students to pose their open-ended questions to other students in order to facilitate discussion, and improve upon their creative and analytical skills.

Jigsaw Strategy – Students will be segmented into groups of four called the home groups. Each group will be given one of the following words “trolling”, “cyber bullying”, “stalking”, or “catfishing”.

  • Each student will be given a KWL worksheet to answer questions about what they think or know about the word.
  • Students will be informed to make sure they understand what the word means, and how it impacts a person behaviorally and socially because they will teach what they have learned to their peers.
  • Students will then be asked to leave their home groups, and will be assigned to an expert group.
  • Students in the expert group will be allowed two to three minutes to silently read an excerpt about the word.
  • When two to three minutes are up, the group will discuss what they read, and write on the “jigsaw puzzle” what they learned.
  • The students will discuss how they are going to present the information to their home groups.
  • Students will regroup with their home groups, and the student from each expert group will teach their home group what they learned.
  • Students in the home group can ask the expert student questions about what he/she learned, and write the responses on the jigsaw worksheet.

Modeling – The teacher will give the students concise and clearly defined information about the lesson. The lesson will be modeled by the teacher by incorporating different instructional methods for visual and auditory learners. The students will be able to ask questions about the lesson, and get input to incorporate teacher-student interactions.

Guided Practice – Before the onset of the lesson, the teacher will discuss “I do, we do and you do” to aid the students in becoming independent when completing their assignments. Students will be placed into groups of three’s. They will listen to the teacher discuss his/her views on how social media compromises a student’s morals by reading or sharing negative post. The teacher will write a few of his/her ideas on chart paper or on the board. The students will be given the opportunity to make inferences regarding the teacher’s ideas. After making inferences, the students will write down their ideas, and/or the ideas of their peers regarding social media and morals on a Venn Diagram.

Check for Understanding – During the lesson, the teacher will ask questions, or infer incorrect answers to determine whether or not the students understood the lesson that was presented. The teacher will also take note of the student’s responses in order to determine if any section of the lesson needs to be retaught to address all learners. The teacher can present students with two colored coded laminate response cards. The cards will be labeled “yes” or “no”. The teacher can ask students to hold up a card to demonstrate whether or not they understood the lesson. The teacher can use this information to make a visual representation on the board to show how many students understood, and how many did not. The teacher can always use the opportunity to reteach a lesson.

Independent Practice – The teacher will assign homework or independent classwork based upon the lesson presented. Students may be asked to create a poster, write a one-page essay of what they learned.

Exit Ticket – A question will be posted on the board for students to answer regarding the lesson. Students will be given an Exit ticket, and time to write their response on the exit ticket. After the allotted time, the exit ticket will be collected. The tickets will be coded according to if the students understood the lesson, if the student did not understand the lesson, or if the students have no idea what the lesson is about. A graph will be posted on the board, so they can see their responses, and the similarities and differences in their responses.

Classroom Activities

THE MEANING OF MORALS

OVERVIEW

The lesson will start with our role in life to live right, follow rules, and be model citizens.

The discussion will allow students to use higher order thinking skills (HOTS) and Action Words for Bloom’s Taxonomy to assist students with using words to facilitate discussion about morals.

OBJECTIVES

Students will be able to:

  • Identify their morals based upon what they have learned from home, community, and/or school.
  • Analyze their morals, and how it affects them on a daily basis
  • Observe someone behaving morally correct or incorrect, and write a paragraph of their observations.

TIME NEEDED

  • One 90-minute class period for 5 consecutive days
  • 15 minutes devoted to DO NOW
  • 30 minutes for Writing
  • 45 minutes for Reading/Literacy
  • Time for Homework

INTRODUCE TOPIC

Discussion will focus on what students know about morals, and how morals impact their lives. Students will be engaged in ongoing discussion, and write sentences/paragraphs about what they know, what they have learned, and what they want to know about the subject being demonstrated.  Students will be given examples on the board/worksheet of what their writing assignments should contain-introductory topic, body paragraphs, and conclusions.

ACTIVITY

DAY 1

ANTICIPATORY SET

Students will be engaged by having the meaning of good and bad morals explained to them. A story will be read to students to engage their higher order thinking skills, utilize prior knowledge, understand the purpose of the story (passage comprehension), elaborate on what they heard (listening comprehension), and what they learned.

MIA’S STORY

The students at school were afraid to say hello or wave to Mia and her friends because they were in a multiple disability classroom. Mia had seizures, and wore a helmet to protect her from hitting her head if she fell. Her friend Cadence had a wheelchair because he could not walk. All of Mia’s friends in her class had a disability, but they did not think they were different from the other students. When Mia and her friends waved or vocalized to the students passing by their classroom, the student would run away, or say unkind words to them. This made Mia and her friends sad because they only wanted to be friends, and to be treated as equals.

One day a new girl came to the school. She had a sister who was handicapped, and she gravitated toward Mia and her friends. She went into their classroom, shook their hands, and talked to them without judging them. When other students saw what the girl had did, they slowly started coming into the classroom, and talking to Mia and her friends.

Students Will:

  • DO NOW-create a moral to the story.
  • Be given a list of morals to review. For about five minutes, the students will be asked to think about what are their morals (what their parent/guardian taught them about right from wrong). They will record their thoughts on a KWL chart. They will complete the K and W section only.
  • Be called upon to go to the board and record a response in the “K” or “W” section of the chart. They will explain what they know or ask what they would like to learn about morals.
  • Review list of “Examples of Moral Rules in Society”. Class will engage in a discussion of societal morals.
  • Complete the “L” section of the KWL chart, and turn in as Exit Ticket.
  • Complete homework assignment what are morals they exhibit at home, school, and community. Do they exhibit the same or different morals at home, school and/or community? Why or Why not. Write two to three paragraphs.

DAY 2

ANTICIPATORY SET

Discussion will focus on prior knowledge of what students have learned about morals. Teacher will engage students by writing on the board his/her morals, and why the morals are important to him/her. Teacher will question students about their morals to activate prior learned knowledge.

Students Will:

  • Complete a DO NOW paragraph on a moral they use/exhibit on a daily basis. Why this moral is important to them?
  • Engage in open discussion about what they wrote, and why it is a good or bad moral to have.
  • Watch a video on morals (8:49). Clip 1
  • Write down morals they noticed the students displaying in the video.
  • Discuss if the students’ morals in the video are the same or different from their morals at school.
  • Students will get into groups of 4’s and complete a “Jigsaw” puzzle (see worksheet).
  • Students will submit “Jigsaw Puzzle” for Exit Ticket.
  • Complete homework assignment on observing someone who is exhibiting good and bad morals, write at least one to two paragraphs about what they observed.

DAY 3

ANTICIPATORY SET

A list of character traits will be posted on the board. Engage the students by reading a character trait, or ask the students to raise their hand, and read a character trait they feel describes them. Responses will be written on the board to demonstrate similarities and differences. A question and answer session will ensue to activate prior knowledge.

Students Will:

  • Complete a DO NOW on why or why not morals help you abide by societal rules.
  • Discuss what are characteristic traits of having good morals, and how these morals help you to be a good citizen.
  • Watch “Kung Fu Panda” (46 minutes).
  • Complete homework assignment on what did they learn from Kung Fu Panda about what is morally right or morally wrong. Give an example of each.

DAY 4

ANTICIPATORY SET

Discuss “Kung Fu Panda” and what was intriguing about how Po always seemed to demonstrate good morals, and always looked at the brighter side rather than focusing on the negative side. Responses will facilitate how students view themselves, their morals, and their character traits.

Students Will:

  • DO NOW-write about what are your good and bad character traits using a Venn Diagram.
  • Finish watching “Kung Fu Panda” (46 minutes).
  • Complete homework of at least ten sentences of what they learned from “Kung Fu Panda” on having good morals.

DAY 5

ANTICIPATORY SET

Students will be called upon to demonstrate a good or bad moral. Responses/guesses from students will address whether it is a good or bad moral. Discussion will focus on what students learned about morals, and how morals impact their lives.

Students Will:

  • Discuss what they learned about morals from watching Video Clip 1 and “Kung Fu Panda”
  • Complete Character worksheet from “Kung Fu Panda”.
  • Group into groups of four’s, to discuss the answers they wrote on their character worksheet
  • Write a two to three paragraphs about why morals are good to have.
  • Complete Weekend Exit Ticket for homework.

MATERIALS

  • Character Worksheet
  • Homework assignments
  • Internet access to have the class view online clips, videos and/or movies relating to the lesson
  • Jigsaw Puzzle worksheet
  • KWL Chart
  • Venn Diagram
  • Writing paper

VIDEO CLIPS

  • Video Clip 1-Moral education in Japan used to describe the teaching of children in a manner that will help them develop variously as moral, mannered, behaved, non-bullying, healthy, successful, traditional, compliant, disciplined or socially acceptable beings. (Facebook, 2018)

https://www.facebook.com/mpgelogo/videos/1643760989048442/

MOVIE

Kung Fu Panda

[Please see PDF attached above for additional lesson plans & appendices]

Bibliography

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Common Core State Standards. Educating Classrooms One Standard at A Time. https://www.corecommonstandards.com/fifth-grade-standards/english-language-arts standards/fifth-grade-speaking-and-listening-standards/,

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The Teacher Toolkit. http://www.theteachertoolkit.com/index.php/tool/jigsaw/jigsaw-3293-note

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Moreau, E. (2018). Internet Trolling: How Do You Spot a Real Troll? How internet trolling affects us all online. https://www.lifewire.com/what-is-internet-trolling-3485891.

Pennsylvania Core Standards. (2018). https://www.pdesas.org/Page/Viewer/ViewPage/14

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Standards

COMMON CORE STANDARDS

Standards: The Core Curriculum of the School District of Philadelphia is aligned to the Pennsylvania Department of Education Standards Aligned System. The standards include instruction on the following topics: literacy, social studies, math, and technology.

ACADEMIC STANDARDS

READING LITERATURE

CC.1.2.6. B Cite textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly, as well as inferences and/or generalizations drawn from the text.

CC.1.2.6. F Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in grade-level reading and content, including interpretation of figurative language in context.

CC.1.2.6. G Integrate information presented in different media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively) as well as in words to develop a coherent understanding of a topic or issue.

CC.1.2.6. I Examine how two authors present similar information in different types of text.

CC.1.2.6. J Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases; gather vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.

CC.1.2.6. K Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple meaning words and phrases based on grade-level reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies and tools.

CC.1.3.6. A Determine a theme or central idea of a text and how it is conveyed through particular details; provide a summary of the text distinct from personal opinions or judgments.

CC.1.3.6. B Cite textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly, as well as inferences and/or generalizations drawn from the text.

CC.1.3.6. D Determine an author’s purpose in a text and explain how it is conveyed in a text.

CC.1.3.6. F Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in grade-level reading and content, including interpretation of figurative language in context.

CC.1.3.6. G Compare and contrast the experiences of reading a story, drama, or poem to listening to or viewing an audio, video, or live version of the text, including contrasting what is “seen” and “heard” when reading the text to what is perceived when listening or watching.

CC.1.3.6. I Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple meaning words and phrases based on grade-level reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies and tools.

WRITING

CC.1.4.6. B Identify and introduce the topic for the intended audience.

CC.1.4.6. D Organize ideas, concepts, and information using strategies such as definition, classification, comparison/contrast, and cause/effect; use appropriate transitions to clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts; provide a concluding statement or section; include formatting when useful to aiding comprehension.

CC.1.4.6.C Develop and analyze the topic with relevant facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples; include graphics and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.

CC.1.4.6. E Write with an awareness of the stylistic aspects of composition.

  • Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
  • Use sentences of varying lengths and complexities.
  • Develop and maintain a consistent voice.
  • Establish and maintain a formal style.

CC.1.4.6. F Demonstrate a grade appropriate command of the conventions of standard English grammar, usage, capitalization, punctuation, and spelling.

CC.1.4.6.H Introduce and state an opinion on a topic.

CC.1.4.6. I Use clear reasons and relevant evidence to support claims, using credible sources and demonstrating an understanding of the topic.

CC.1.4.6.M Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events.

CC.1.4.6. Q Write with an awareness of the stylistic aspects of writing. · Vary sentence patterns for meaning, reader/listener interest, and style. · Use precise language. · Develop and maintain a consistent voice.

CC.1.4.6. R Demonstrate a grade appropriate command of the conventions of standard English grammar, usage, capitalization, punctuation, and spelling.

CC.1.4.6. T with guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach.

CC.1.4.6. U Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing as well as to interact and collaborate with others; demonstrate sufficient command of keyboarding skills to type a minimum of three pages in a single sitting.