I Am Malala: Mindfulness and Community Service

Author: Cara Wallin

School/Organization:

Shawmont Elementary School

Year: 2017

Seminar: A Survey of Contemplative Practices Across the World's Religions

Grade Level: 6

Keywords: community service, Culture, fundraising, I am Malala, Personal Growth

School Subject(s): Social Studies

This unit is completely centered around the concept of culture, mindfulness, and community service through the novel I Am Malala.  “Culture is the customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits of a racial, religious, or social group.  Culture is the characteristic features that are focused around the acts needed for survival.  It is the everyday existences shared by people in a place or time (Culture).” Culture permeates through every aspect of life and has many facets such as religion, family, traditions, history, etc.  In this unit, students will focus on a young girl named, Malala Yousufzai, who grew up in the Swat Valley, located in Pakistan. In this novel, students will gain a deeper understanding of Pakistan and its history and how the culture was forced to change over time due to politics.  Students will be able to follow Malala’s strength through her journey of mindfulness, acceptance, and activism to fight for what she believes, the importance of having equal rights to education, no matter what gender.

Download Unit: Wallin-C-TIP-Unit.pdf

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Full Unit Text
Rationale

In today’s day in age, there is so much hate and blame placed on groups of people, whether by race, religion, sex, etc.  As an educator, I believe it is my job to break down these assumptions and stereotypes that produce such negative outlooks on life and people.  Education is the key to finding and understanding the truth behind culture.  Students need to learn the importance of diverse cultures and how to accept and respect the differences, as well as acknowledge the similarities.

 

Malala Yousufzai is an exemplary role model of strength, mindfulness, and perseverance.

Her journey was no where near easy, but she continues to fight feverously even when the odds have been stacked against her and her life and her family’s life has been threatened and in danger. Malala has been fighting with peace, not hate.  She has found ways to overcome her terror and fear through mindful practices to find her inner peace with the situations that have arisen in her life.

 

Today, students and young children are faced with so much turmoil and trauma and are not always given the outlets to explore and heal.  They have seen so much hate and vengeance, whether it be in their home, neighborhood, or broadcasted on the news.  Reading this novel with middle school students will allow an opportunity for a door to open.  The classroom will serve as a safe and unbiased haven where a conversation can occur so that students can ask questions or share concerns.  Malala’s bravery and unwavering determination to find peace and equality will resound with the students.  This novel is an excellent way to introduce tools we can all use to help heal and find our own peace.

Objectives

This particular unit is aligned with 6th grade standard, but can be used for middle school students.  This sixth grade is an inclusion classroom with 32 students.  The students cycle once in the first half of the day.  One sixth grade teacher teaches math and science, while I teach social studies and literacy.  The students have a 45-minute lunch, along with a 45-minute rep in the afternoon.  (Preps include music, computer, gym, and SAM- School Academic Music Program).

 

  • Students will be able to identify and practice different strategies in order to manage inner and peer conflict.
  • SWBAT identify the similarities and differences of the culture in America to the culture in Pakistan.
  • SWBAT analyze the inequality of men and women in Pakistan IOT write an argumentative essay.
  • SWBAT research the importance of education IOT comprehend Malala’s fund.

Strategies

This unit will contain age- appropriate activities that will be included cross- curricular in both social studies and literacy.  Lessons will be differentiated to meet IEP learning goals and reach every student.  Students will access a wide variety of sources, including web, text, and videos in order for students to get a deeper understanding of Malala and her culture. Students will complete research and hands-on activities in order to engage students and reach the many different type of learners within the classroom.   Some strategies I plan on incorporating are the following:

 

Practicing Mindfulness

Within the four- week unit, students will be introduced to the practice called mindfulness.  Mindfulness is focusing and paying attention on the here and now, the present.   Mindfulness will help promote an optimistic classroom and help students develop mindful attention to oneself and others, tolerance of differences, and the capacity of each member in the classroom to grow as a learner.  Through the practice of the mindfulness, students will gain insight into their own minds and behaviors as well as those around them.  Some examples that will be incorporated in this unit will be the following:  becoming aware of the breath, noticing thoughts as they pass the mind, feeling the various sensations of emotions, attending to the body at rest and in motion, practicing sending kindness to oneself and others. (About AME)”.

 

Journaling

Within this three- week curriculum unit, students will engage in journaling.  At the beginning of every social studies class, students will be given a symbol or a question about electronics.  Each journal includes a brief and general description, along with prompts and questions to help guide the students in creating their own thoughts and hypotheses.  The students will be given five to ten minutes to write freely in response to the prompt.  This strategy allows students to integrate their prior knowledge, as well as the knowledge the students have attained in the classroom.  Journaling helps document the students’ growth throughout the curriculum unit and it will allow students to record questions or interesting facts.  Setting this activity at the beginning of each lesson ensures that the students are reflecting and focusing on the topic at hand, so that they are ready for the lesson ahead.

 

Choice Boards

One of my main objectives as a teacher is to encourage and guide students to become independent learners.  Students need to take ownership of their learning process and the activities they complete.  Choice boards are an excellent strategy, which gives the students an active role in their learning by giving the student options.  For a choice board, the teacher first has to determine the objective.  Once the objective and purpose have been established, the teacher will choose activities, which help reach the outcome of the designated objective.  There should be a wide variety of activities that will inspire the many different types of learners within the classroom.  The choices will then be visually represented to the students, whether in words, or by examples.  Students will then be given the direction to choose one, or more than one activity that is engaging to their needs.  With this strategy, it allows students to choose a project or activity that they are interested in, which will result in a better product and comprehension.

 

Differentiation

In a classroom there are many types of learners.  Each student comes to class with different cultural backgrounds, academic backgrounds, interests, learning styles, etc.  It is important to differentiate the content, instruction, and student products in order to ensure the success of all students.  Differentiation is the matching of appropriately challenging curriculum and instruction with a student’s ability, interests, and learning styles through a variety of activities, strategies, and material (“Differentiation”). In this curriculum unit, all students will be learning the same content, but each student’s needs will be addressed throughout the unit.  Students will show their understanding in a variety of ways that is personal to their needs.  Lessons will ensure to challenge students through tiered activities and higher order questioning.  With planning, differentiation will help each child accelerate as a life- long learner, while reaching the goal of each objective for the unit.

 

Think Pair Share

The Think-Pair-Share strategy is designed to differentiate instruction by providing students time for creating their own thoughts and conclusions about a topic.  It allows time for students to formulate questions or findings that might have.   After students were given a few minutes to independently think, then they turn to their partner/buddy and share their thoughts.  The partners have a meaningful discussion where they are being active learners.  “This learning strategy promotes classroom participation by encouraging a high degree of pupil response, rather than using a basic recitation method in which a teacher poses a question and one student offers a response.” (Read Write Think) Having students work with only one partner rather than whole class or group instruction, the students have more of a voice.  They are heard by their partner and are able to have a continuous and fluent conversation.  Being able to have this personal conversation about what they are thinking which increases their sense of involvement in classroom learning.  During this time, the teacher is able to circulate around the room, join in on conversations, answer questions, or just observe.

Classroom Activities

Activity 1:  Introducing Mindfulness/ Meditation

Time: 45 minutes

Materials:

  • Journal Activity (Appendix B)
  • Mindful Coloring (Appendix A)

Objective: Students will be able to identify and practice different strategies in order to manage inner and peer conflict.

Standard: 10.3. Safety and Injury Prevention

  1. Describe strategies to avoid or manage conflict and violence. (anger management, peer mediation, reflective listening, and negotiation)

Procedure:

  1. Today I want us to learn something called mindfulness. Has anyone ever heard the word Mindfulness? Mindfulness is noticing what is happening in the present moment. Mindfulness can help us learn to pay close attention to many things. It can also help us calm down when we are angry, sad, frustrated, or have any difficult emotion. Mindfulness can help us notice when we are happy or grateful too. It can also help us focus and in school, sports or music. We’re going to try practicing mindfulness everyday so even if we don’t understand exactly what it is today, we will after some time.
  2. If students are at their desks, have them all move their chairs away from their desks and turn them toward the front of the room. Explain that they can do this each time when practicing mindfulness. Remind them each time until it is a habit. (They will be practicing before each activity.)
  3. The first thing that will help us during mindfulness is to let our bodies be very still.  The second thing automatically happens when we get still, which is being aware of the noise around us, which we are working towards complete silence.
  4. Explain that we have still bodies and quiet bodies, which is what we will call our mindful bodies.
  5. Now, let’s close our eyes and just sit like that for one minute. Focus on your breath entering in your nose and out your mouth.  Follow the breath down to your belly button and back up to your mouth.   Explain to students that we will eventually add counting into this routine.  Have students try to focus on this for two minutes on the first day.  (By the end of this unit, have students work up enough stamina for 10 minutes.)
  6. After each beginning meditation activity, have students either complete a journal or coloring sheet, in order to help students focus their thoughts and feelings.  As the teacher, you have the freedom to decide which days would be best for mindful coloring and journal writing.  Templates for both in the Appendix.

(http://www.mindfulschools.org/resources/explore-mindful-resources/)

 

Activity 2:  Reaction to Interview with Malala

Time: 45 minutes

Materials:

Objective: SWBAT analyze Malala´s point of view and reactions to questions about historical events IOT determine her feelings towards each event how she has found inner peace in her journey.

Standard: Standard – 8.1.6.B Differentiate between fact and opinion, multiple points of view, and primary and secondary sources to explain historical events.

10.3. Safety and Injury Prevention

  1. Describe strategies to avoid or manage conflict and violence. (anger management, peer mediation, reflective listening, and negotiation)

Procedure:

  1. Complete a 3- minutes breathing exercise with students.
    1. Use the following link to coach the exercise: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SEfs5TJZ6Nk
  2. Review the events that have happened to Malala based on the memoir we have read, I Am Malala.
  3. Have students discuss what point of view the memoir was written in.
  4. Have students review the questions found on the worksheet, before showing the interview clip.
  5. Show the video clip to students.
  6. Give students time to complete and answer the questions on the worksheet in complete sentences.
  7. Review students’ responses. (Allow time for discussion and different points of view.)

 

 

Activity 3: Exploring and Understanding the Malala Fund

Time: 45 minutes

Materials:

Objective: Students will be able to explore and navigate the Malala Fund website, in order to get a better understanding of what the main goal of her organization is.

Standard:

Procedure:

  1. Give students a coloring worksheet from the first lesson. Have students color this silently, while listening to the meditation music listed above in the materials list.
  2. Once completed, have a group discussion about how they feel after listening to the music and coloring independently and in silence.
  3. Introduce the Malala Fun by showing the Extra Footage on He Named Me Malala.
  4. Students can then work independently, with a partner or a small group to explore the website https://www.malala.org/
  5. Have students answer the questions on the worksheet listed in Appendix D.
  6. As a class, review the answers to the questions.
  7. This activity will serve as a good base for the following projects in this unit.

 

 

Activity 4: Students will create their own fund for a current and important issue

Time: 3 classes -45 minutes each

Materials:

Objective: Students will be able to research and investigate issues that are in our current events in order to raise awareness and a solution to that issue.

Standard: 5.2.C.B Analyze strategies used to resolve conflicts in society and government.

5.3.6.H Describe the influence of mass media on society.

Procedure:

  1. Complete 5- minute meditation using the following link https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vVaMLYAiR8o&t=13s
  2. Review with the students about what they had learned about the Malala Fund.
    1. Explain that Malala Yousafzai created a fund, the Malala Fund, to help girls worldwide get an education. She believes that everyone has the right to education and she has fought for this issue in her own country, as well as across the world.
  3. Have students brainstorm a social issue that they believe requires attention of the public. (The issue can be a local, statewide, national, or worldwide matter. It doesn’t have to effect everyone, but it should be prevalent enough that people will understand the problem.)
  4. Students will then work with a small group to create a foundation that would bring a spotlight on the issue they chose.
  5. Students will then have to think of a creative way to bring light to their concept. They will have to find ways to market their foundation by either creating a poster board or a digital visual aid (It can be hand drawn on a poster board or it could be  Power Point/Google Slides presentation).
  6. The marketing campaign you should include all of the following information:
  7. What is the name of your foundation?
  8. What is your goal?
  9. Who will it benefit?
  10. Who do you expect to contribute to your fund?
  11. What would you consider progress for your foundation?
  12. Who will or should be in charge of this group?
  13. What will be your slogan?
  14. With what other organizations might you collaborate?

 

Activity 5: Culminating Community Service Learning Project

Time: 5 classes – 45 minutes each

Materials:

Objective: Students will be able to collaborate with fellow students in order to create an innovative way to raise awareness to the Malala Fund across the school, while raising money for this cause.

Students will be able to collaborate with a group to create and propose an idea to their school/principal in order to help raise money for the Malala Fund, which promotes and supports education of girls all across the world.

Procedure:

  1. Malala Yousafzai created a fund, the Malala Fund, to help girls worldwide get an education. She believes that everyone has the right to education and she has fought for this issue in her own country, as well as across the world.
  2. Have students use laptops to once again review the Malala Fund at https://www.malala.org/
  3. Ask students to journal different ways they can bring awareness of this fund to all the students in the school and how we can raise money to donate to this fund.
  4. Have a brief class discussion about some of their thoughts, why they think it is so important, and what they think they could do to help raise money for this cause.
  5. Have students break up into groups of 2 or more, but no more than 5. Distribute rubric and guidelines to each student, so that they can follow along with the directions as you read them aloud.  (See Appendix for Rubric and Guidelines)
  6. Have students either search online using the website http://www.juniata.edu/campus-life/activities/100FundraisingIdeas.html or print out this page for students to review and get ideas from.
  7. Students will have to collaborate with their group to create a fundraiser that we can do across the school.
  8. Students will have to think and make a proposal of how we would roll out the fundraiser, while bring awareness.
  9. Students will most likely need 3-4 days to figure out all the logistics.
  10. Students will then have to organize their proposal on either PowerPoint or GoogleSlides for their presentation.
  11. Students will have to present their prospective fundraiser to the principal so that he/she can approve the fundraiser.
  12. The fundraiser that was chosen by the principal will then be the fundraiser that the entire class adopts.
  13. Students will then find ways to raise awareness to the rest of the student body.

Annotated Bibliography

Reading List-

 

“Culture.” Merria,-Webster. Merriam- Webster. Web. 20 Feb. 2017.< https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/culture>.

 

Kettler, Sara. “Malala Yousafzai.” Biography.com. A&E Networks Television, 13 Apr. 2017. Web. 24 June 2017.

 

“The Nobel Peace Prize 2014 – Press Release”. Nobelprize.org. Nobel Media AB 2014. Web. 20 Feb 2017. http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/2014/press.html

 

“What It Can Do for You.” Mindfulness Finding Peace in a Frantic World. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 June 2017.

 

Yousafzai, M., & Lamb, C. (2016).  I am Malala: The Girl Who Stood Up for Education and Was Shot by the Taliban. Back Bay Books, New York.

 

 

 

Teacher Resources-

“About AME.” Association for Mindfulness in Education. Web. 20 Feb. 2017.

 

Akpan, Nsikan.  “What Will Malala’s Nobel Peace Prize Mean for Girls’ Education?” NPR. NPR, 15 Oct. 2014. Web. 20 Feb. 2017.

 

Chaudry, Zainab. “Why Pakistan Should Embrace Nobel Peace Prize Co-Winner Malala Yousufzai.” Altmuslim. 15 Oct. 2014. Web. 20 Feb. 2017.

 

Yousafzai, M., & Lamb, C. (2016).  I am Malala: The Girl Who Stood Up for Education and Was Shot by the Taliban. Back Bay Books, New York.

Student Resources-  

 

“3-minute Mindful Breathing Meditation.” YouTube. YouTube, 04 Mar. 2016. Web. 24 June 2017.

 

“5-Minute Mindful Breathing Meditation.” YouTube. YouTube, 14 Sept. 2016. Web. 24 June 2017.

 

100 Fundraising Ideas. Web. 24 June 2017.

 

Circle, The Maven. “5 Free Printable Coloring Pages: Mandala Templates.” The Maven Circle.  03 May 2017. Web. 24 June 2017.

 

Comedycentral. “The Daily Show – Malala Yousafzai Extended Interview.” YouTube. YouTube, 10 Oct. 2013. Web. 24 June 2017.

 

Fund, Malala. “Learning for 12 Years. Leading without Fear.” The Malala Fund. Web. 24 June 2017.

 

YourRelaxMusic1. “Relaxing Music for Stress Relief. Meditation Music for Yoga, Healing Music for Massage, Soothing Spa.” YouTube. YouTube, 13 Mar. 2016. Web. 24 June 2017.

 

Yousafzai, M., & Lamb, C. (2016).  I am Malala: The Girl Who Stood Up for Education and Was Shot by the Taliban. Back Bay Books, New York.

Appendix

Appendix A

Name ________________________________                     Date ___________________

 

 

Mindful Practices

 

 

https://www.themavencircle.com/20-free-printable-coloring-pages/

Appendix B

Name ____________________________________             Date ___________________

Journal

 

Directions: In chapter 20, Malala devotes the entire time to telling a narrative of what happened to her during her shooting. She focuses on minor details in order to add suspense and peak the reader’s interest.

Concentrate on a short period of time that has happened in your life. It can be the first ten minutes before a big game, the thirty minutes it took you to pass or fail your driver’s test, or any other special short quantity of time. Even though that time was brief, this moment in your life was packed with importance. You should pay careful attention to the five senses. What do you remember 
hearing? Seeing? Smelling? Tasting? Touching?

You will have 15 minutes to jot down your own narrative.  Do not worry about spelling and grammatical errors.

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Appendix C

Name __________________________________     Date _____________________

 

Interview with Malala

 

Directions:  After watching the interview, please answer the following questions in complete sentences.

 

  1. Where did Malala’s love for education come from?

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  1. Why does she believe the Taliban are frightened of education?

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  1. What did people initially think of the Taliban when they came to Swat Valley?

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  1. How does she explain the actions of the Taliban?

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  1. What gave Malala the courage to fight for education?

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  1. When did Malala realize that the Taliban had made her a target?

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  1. Who was she worried about once she found out about the threat? What does this say about her character?

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  1. Explain what she said she would do if the Taliban would come to get her.

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  1. How did she describe how she would fight against the Taliban?

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  1. What roles does Malala think that the United States should have on the events occurring in Swat Valley?

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Appendix D

Name _________________________________                   Date ___________________

Exploring the Website

Directions: The author of this novel, Malala Yousafzai, set up a foundation called The Malala Fund.  You can learn more about this organization via her website: malalafund.org. Answer these questions after you have visited the website:

  1. What is the aim of the Malala Fund?

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  1. During a Malala Day event, Malala gives a speech in Nigeria. Why does she say that they celebrate Malala Day? 
_______________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  2. Be sure to watch the #Wearesilent video. What day do all of the celebrities tell you to “take a stand”? Why? 
_________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  3. With which other philanthropist group is the Malala Fund now partnering? Why?
____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  4. What does this group endorse? Be sure to site evidence for your answer from the website.

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  1. What is the goal of this organization? ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  2. How does Malala feel about secondary education? ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  3. When does Malala say she will stop campaigning for the rights of others? ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  4. If someone wants to learn more about Malala’s fund, what should they do? ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
      1 2 3 4
    Current

    Event

    Student only found 1 current event that the fundraiser’s profit should go to with no explanation of why this event deserves the money

     

    Student found 2 current events that the fundraiser’s profit should go to with a brief summary of why each event deserves the money

     

    Student found 3 current events that the fundraiser’s profit should go to with a reasonable summary of why each event deserves the money

     

    Student found 4 current events that the fundraiser’s profit should go to with an excellent summary of why each event deserves the money

     

    Collaboration Student does not work well together with other classmates while putting on the fundraiser and making the presentation

     

    Student works okay with other classmates while putting on the fundraiser and making the presentation

     

    Student works very well with other classmates while putting on the fundraiser and making the presentation

     

    Student works excellently with classmates while putting on the fundraiser and making the presentation

     

    Presentation Student does not know much about presentation the group is presenting Student knows 75% of the presentation the group is presenting

     

    Student knows 90% of the presentation the group is presenting

     

    Student knows all of the presentation the group is presenting

     

    Marketing Student put in little to no effort to promote the event with posters, online advertising, or flyers with no feedback as to whether people will attend

     

    Student puts in average amount of effort to promote the event with posters, online advertising, or flyers with some feedback as to whether people will attend Student puts in good amount of effort to promote the event with posters, online advertising, or flyers with moderate amount of feedback as to whether people will attend

     

    Student puts in excellent amount of effort to promote the event with posters, online advertising, or flyers with a lot of feedback as to whether people will attend

     

    Overall Student put in little to no effort to contribute to the fundraiser and presentation. Student put in some effort to contribute to the fundraiser and presentation Student put in excellent amount of effort to contribute to fundraiser and presentation

     

    Student put in excellent amount of effort to contribute to fundraiser and presentation

     

    Appendix F

    Rubric- Culminating Service Learning Project

  5.   1 2 3 4
    Fundraising

    Event

    Student only found either 1 location OR time where the fundraiser could be put on and no explanation as to why the fundraiser should be put on there or then Student found 1 location AND time where the fundraiser could be put on with a brief explanation as to why the fundraiser should be put on there and then

     

    Student found 1 location AND time where the fundraiser could be put on with an excellent explanation as to why the fundraiser should be put on there and then

     

    Student found 2 locations AND times where the fundraiser could be put on with an excellent explanation as to why the fundraiser should be put on there and then
    Collaboration Student does not work well together with other classmates while putting on the fundraiser and making the presentation

     

    Student works okay with other classmates while putting on the fundraiser and making the presentation

     

    Student works very well with other classmates while putting on the fundraiser and making the presentation

     

    Student works excellently with classmates while putting on the fundraiser and making the presentation

     

    Presentation Student does not know much about presentation the group is presenting Student knows 75% of the presentation the group is presenting

     

    Student knows 90% of the presentation the group is presenting

     

    Student knows all of the presentation the group is presenting

     

    Marketing Student put in little to no effort to promote the event with posters, online advertising, or flyers with no feedback as to whether people will attend

     

    Student puts in average amount of effort to promote the event with posters, online advertising, or flyers with some feedback as to whether people will attend Student puts in good amount of effort to promote the event with posters, online advertising, or flyers with moderate amount of feedback as to whether people will attend

     

    Student puts in excellent amount of effort to promote the event with posters, online advertising, or flyers with a lot of feedback as to whether people will attend

     

    Overall Student put in little to no effort to contribute to the fundraiser and presentation. Student put in some effort to contribute to the fundraiser and presentation Student put in excellent amount of effort to contribute to fundraiser and presentation

     

    Student put in excellent amount of effort to contribute to fundraiser and presentation

     

Standards

5.1.C.C Evaluate the application of the principles and ideals in contemporary civic life.

  • Liberty / Freedom
  • Democracy
  • Justice
  • Equality

5.2.C.B Analyze strategies used to resolve conflicts in society and government.

5.3.6.H Describe the influence of mass media on society.

6.3.W.B Analyze how conflict and cooperation among groups and organizations have influenced the history and development of the world.

  • Ethnicity and Race
  • Working conditions
  • Immigration
  • Military conflict
  • Economic Stability

6.4.W.C Compare the role groups and individuals played in the social, political, cultural, and economic development throughout world history.

7.3.6.A Describe the human characteristics of places and regions using the following criteria:

  • Population
  • Culture
  • Settlement
  • Economic activities
  • Political activities

8.1.6.A Explain continuity and change over time using sequential order and context of events.

Standard – 8.1.6.B Differentiate between fact and opinion, multiple points of view, and primary and secondary sources to explain historical events.

 

10.3. Safety and Injury Prevention

  1. Describe strategies to avoid or manage conflict and violence. • anger management • peer mediation • reflective listening • negotiation