Civil Rights Movement vs. Black Lives Matter: Young People at the Helm of the Movement

Author: Tasha Russell

School/Organization:

Wagner Middle School

Year: 2020

Seminar: Cinema and Civil Rights

Grade Level: 5-8

Keywords: African American History month, Black Lives Matter, Civil Rights Movement, injustice

Download Unit: Russell-Tasha.pdf

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Full Unit Text
Content Objectives

Overview

This content in this unit will focus on the involvement of young people in the Civil Rights movement as well as the Black Lives Matter movement. The curriculum will introduce students to films and articles related to the Civil Rights Movement as well as the Black Lives Matter Movement.

Rationale

In today’s society, there are a lot of injustices occurring in the African American community which requires change in order to make it better. Social change in a community requires activism or a community protesting against injustices. High school students are attending rallies, starting protests, and other events. Middle school students are often self absorbed and not focusing on the world outside of themselves. The purpose of this unit is to help middle school students understand their role as an activist and hopefully become an activist in their own community to create social change. It is important to allow students to explore young people’s role in the civil rights movement as well as the Black Lives Movement and how they can become activists for themselves in their own community.

Introduction

Wagner Middle School is located in the West Oak Lane section of Philadelphia and serves over 500 children in 6th through 8th grade. All of the students attending are economically advantaged. The racial makeup of this school is eighty-nine percent students are African American, four percent are Hispanic/Latino, one percent are Caucasian, and six percent are Multi-Racial/other. The school participates often in charitable events and the majority of the students participate, but I often wonder if students understand outside of the dances and dress up days the impact that they are making on others and helping others with their injustices.

This unit is important for teachers to present because the School District of Philadelphia is composed of mostly African American students and African American students often encounter a lot of injustices in their daily lives. My expertise as an African American woman and teacher has afforded me the knowledge to present Civil Rights to students and to embrace new knowledge about the Black Lives Matter movement. This new knowledge in this unit would allow students to compare and analyze these movements in order to explore injustices in students’ daily lives and become social changers.

Content Objectives

This unit is for middle school students in grade sixth through eighth grade. Middle school students often do not view issues outside of themselves. They are often only focused on themselves and dealing with their peers.  Middle school students are often unaware or accepting of unjust issues in their daily lives. Students need to be aware of the issues that affect their daily lives in order to create social change among their families, schools, and community. In this unit, I would like to find out the ways to allow students to become change agents in their community to affect social change.

Students will be able to explore and discuss a video about the history of young people in the Civil Rights Movement and create a personal narrative about civil rights issues that affect their daily lives.

Teaching Strategies

Students will compare and contrast how young people started aiding in the civil rights movement and the Black lives matter movement and how students can create movements about their daily injustices. Students will use an inquiry based model and begin with questions or issues that affect their daily lives. Students will view videos and read about how young people became a part of the Civil Rights Movement and the Black Lives matter movement. Students will have class discussions comparing and contrasting the movements. Students will create a narrative essay on the current issues in their own lives and come up with ways to provide solutions to the issues in their own communities

Classroom Activities

  Essential Question(s): What is a movement? How have the Youth Moved the Nation during the Civil Rights Movement? What are the ways that you are inspired to change your life currently ?

Students will view a series of videos which includes a timeline of young adults in the Civil rights movement. The timeline would include the following young adults involved in the Civil Rights Movement::

  • 1957-Little Rock Nine
  • 1958-1960-Sit ins NAACP Youth Council- Wichita, KS
  • 1960-Ruby Bridges
  • 1961-Freedom Riders- The goal was to integrate seating patterns on buses and desegregate the bus terminals organized by CORE
  • 1964- Freedom Summer- 1,000 college students helped with voter registration drives, Freedom Schools, and Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP)
  • 1963- 1967- Selma Voting Rights- Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee. Dr. Martin Luther King joined student activities
  • 1965- Bloody Sunday- It happened eight days after the first march, but the final march, President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the Voting Rights Act of 1965

 

Lesson 1: View a video a day according to the timeline of events and on the last day watch Whose streets?. For each video, the students will take notes and create questions for discussion.

Day 1:  Little Rock Nine Video-also visit Brown vs. Board of Education video and text

Day 2: Read Lessons from Little Rock and complete a text rendering activity

Day 3: Sit ins NAACP Youth Council- Wichita, KS

Day 4: Read Sit-ins omitted from the history books and complete a text rendering activity

Day 5: Ruby Bridges; Review the Slide Show of Ruby Bridges and a Hero’s Choice Video and complete a text rendering activity

Day 6: Freedom Riders- Watch clips from the film Freedom Riders and the American Experience and complete a text rendering activity

Day 7: Freedom Summer- continue to watch Freedom Riders and complete a text rendering activity

Day 8: 1963- 1967- Selma Voting Rights- SNCC- Watch Selma and complete a text rendering activity

Day 9: Bloody Sunday- continue to Watch Selma and complete a text rendering activity

Lesson 2: Students will view images of the 1960s Civil Rights Movement and complete a gallery walk.

 

Lesson 3: Students will participate in cooperative learning groups and think pair share to discuss the comparisons and contrasts  and complete a Venn Diagram about the civil rights movement videos and the Black Lives Matter video (Whose Streets?). Assign a facilitator, summarizer, recorder, a presenter for each group.

 

Lesson 4: Students will write a comparative and contrasting essay between the Civil Rights Movement and the Black Lives Matter

 

Lesson 5: Students will independently research and write a narrative essay about an important social issue that impacts their daily lives.

 

Lesson 6: Students can view digital stories from Drexel’s Center for Nonviolence and Social Justice (https://drexel.edu/cnvsj/healing-hurt-people/digital-stories/) Students could also create a video about the issues that affect them in their community.

Lesson 7: Students can read the book and watch the movie The Hate U Give and respond to it through writing.

Before Reading

  1. Students will watch the video
  2. Students will respond to a KWL chart
  3. Students will read Tupac’s poem and become artists as Activists
  4. Students can participate in a free writing activity in response to a prompt from the Teacher’s guide
  1. Discussion Prompts
  2. As Starr and Khalil listen to Tupac, Khalil explains what Tupac said “Thug Life” meant. Discuss the meaning of the term “Thug Life” as an acronym and why the author might have chosen part of this as the title of the book. In what ways do you see this in society today? (Chapter 1, p. 17)
  3. Chapter 2 begins with Starr flashing back to two talks her parents had with her when she was young. One was about sex (“the usual birds and bees”). The second was about what precautions to take when encountering a police officer (Chapter 2, p. 20). Have you had a similar conversation about what to do when stopped by the police? Reflect upon or imagine this conversation.
  4. Thomas frequently uses motifs of silence and voice throughout the book. Find instances in the book where silence or voice and speech are noted, and talk about the author’s possible intentions for emphasizing these motifs.
  5. At the police station after Starr details the events leading up to the shooting, the detective shifts her focus to Khalil’s past. Why do you think the detective did this? Discuss Starr’s reaction to this “bait” (Chapter 6, pp. 102–103). Discuss the way that Khalil is portrayed by the media. How does Starr work to counteract this media portrayal?
  6. How do you think Starr would define family? What about Seven, DeVante, Kenya, and Khalil? Do you have to be related by blood to consider a person your family? How do you define family?
  7. Once news of Khalil’s shooting spreads across the neighborhood, unrest arises: “Sirens wail outside. The news shows three patrol cars that have been set ablaze at the police precinct . . . A gas station near the freeway gets looted . . . My neighborhood is a war zone” (Chapter 9, pp. 138–139). Respond to this development and describe some parallels to current events.
  8. Chris and Starr have a breakthrough in their relationship—Starr admits to him that she was in the car with Khalil and shares the memories of Natasha’s murder (Chapter 17, pp. 298–301). Discuss why Starr’s admission and releasing of this burden to Chris is significant. Explore the practice of “code switching” and discuss how you might code switch in different circumstances in your own life.
  9. How and why does the neighborhood react to the grand jury’s decision (Chapter 23)? How does Starr use her voice as a weapon, and why does she feel that it is vital that she does? Refer back to “Thug Life” and discuss how the acronym resonates in this chapter.
  10. Maverick’s rose garden is a recurring symbol throughout the course of the novel. Discuss the symbolism of the rose garden and how it contributes to the overall theme.
  11. Starr pledges to “never be quiet” (Chapter 26, p. 444). After reading this book, how can you use your voice to promote and advance social justice? Reflect on how you and your community discuss and address inequality.

During Reading

  1. Double Entry Journal. Create a double entry journal to reflect on especially poignant passages from the text. Encourage students to make text-to-self, text-to-text, and text-to-world connections
  2. Identity Playlist. Create a playlist for Starr that shows both sides of her, the Garden Heights Starr and the Williamson Starr. Have students explain their song choices by referring to specific events in the novel.
  3. Conflict. Create a chart to keep track of the emerging internal and external conflicts that the following characters face throughout the course of the novel: Starr, Maverick “Big Mav”, Lisa, Seven, Uncle Carlos, DeVante, Kenya.
  4. Media. Divide students into small groups and assign each of them a different media format (newspaper article, social media, filmed news segment, podcast, photo journal, etc.) Have each group produce a news segment that uncovers the story behind Khalil’s murder.

After Reading

  1. Bravery. Many characters throughout the novel exhibit bravery. Discuss the individual actions of various characters who chose to be courageous. Do you think bravery is an inherent trait, or is it something that develops because of being faced with adversity? Compose a response to this question and cite evidence from the text to support your response.
  2. Family Tree. Create a visual family tree for the Carter family. For each family member represented, include the following information: a quote from the text that represents the character, details from the text about their physical description, and an adjective to describe them
  3. Difficult Conversations. Starr has some challenging conversations about race with Chris, Maya, and Hailey. Some of these conversations are productive and lead to a deeper respect and understanding, while others are unsuccessful and leave both parties feeling
  4. Activists. Tupac, the Black Panthers, and Dr. Martin Luther King are a few real-life activists mentioned throughout the course of the novel. As a culminating research project, choose an activist who you find to be inspirational and create a short digital presentation to share with the class.
  5. Lesson Plan= The Hate U GiveGrade Levels: Middle/High School

    Subject Areas: Social Studies/Literacy/ Technology

    Objectives/Standards: Students will be able to understand racism as power plus prejudice and will recognize aspects and effects of structural racism in our society.

    RL.1 – Meaning & Evidence, RL.2 – Main Ideas, RL.3 – Characters & Plot, RL.4 – Key Terms & Tone, RL.5 – Text Structure, RL.6 – Point of View

    Essential Question: How are people shaped by racial conflict?

    Before Reading

    1. Students will watch the video
    2. Students will respond to a KWL chart
    3. Students will read Tupac’s poem and become artists as Activists
    4. Students can participate in a free writing activity in response to a prompt from the Teacher’s guide
    1. Discussion Prompts
    2. As Starr and Khalil listen to Tupac, Khalil explains what Tupac said “Thug Life” meant. Discuss the meaning of the term “Thug Life” as an acronym and why the author might have chosen part of this as the title of the book. In what ways do you see this in society today? (Chapter 1, p. 17)
    3. Chapter 2 begins with Starr flashing back to two talks her parents had with her when she was young. One was about sex (“the usual birds and bees”). The second was about what precautions to take when encountering a police officer (Chapter 2, p. 20). Have you had a similar conversation about what to do when stopped by the police? Reflect upon or imagine this conversation.
    4. Thomas frequently uses motifs of silence and voice throughout the book. Find instances in the book where silence or voice and speech are noted, and talk about the author’s possible intentions for emphasizing these motifs.
    5. At the police station after Starr details the events leading up to the shooting, the detective shifts her focus to Khalil’s past. Why do you think the detective did this? Discuss Starr’s reaction to this “bait” (Chapter 6, pp. 102–103). Discuss the way that Khalil is portrayed by the media. How does Starr work to counteract this media portrayal?
    6. How do you think Starr would define family? What about Seven, DeVante, Kenya, and Khalil? Do you have to be related by blood to consider a person family? How do you define family?
    7. Once news of Khalil’s shooting spreads across the neighborhood, unrest arises: “Sirens wail outside. The news shows three patrol cars that have been set ablaze at the police precinct . . . A gas station near the freeway gets looted . . . My neighborhood is a war zone” (Chapter 9, pp. 138–139). Respond to this development and describe some parallels to current events.
    8. Chris and Starr have a breakthrough in their relationship—Starr admits to him that she was in the car with Khalil and shares the memories of Natasha’s murder (Chapter 17, pp. 298–301). Discuss why Starr’s admission and releasing of this burden to Chris is significant. Explore the practice of “code switching” and discuss how you might code switch in different circumstances in your own life.
    9. How and why does the neighborhood react to the grand jury’s decision (Chapter 23)? How does Starr use her voice as a weapon, and why does she feel that it is vital that she does? Refer back to “Thug Life” and discuss how the acronym resonates in this chapter.
    10. Maverick’s rose garden is a recurring symbol throughout the course of the novel. Discuss the symbolism of the rose garden and how it contributes to the overall theme.
    11. Starr pledges to “never be quiet” (Chapter 26, p. 444). After reading this book, how can you use your voice to promote and advance social justice? Reflect on how you and your community discuss and address inequality.

    During Reading

    1. Double Entry Journal. Create a double entry journal to reflect on especially poignant passages from the text. Encourage students to make text-to-self, text-to-text, and text-to-world connections
    2. Identity Playlist. Create a playlist for Starr that shows both sides of her, the Garden Heights Starr and the Williamson Starr. Have students explain their song choices by referring to specific events in the novel.
    3. Conflict. Create a chart to keep track of the emerging internal and external conflicts that the following characters face throughout the course of the novel: Starr, Maverick “Big Mav”, Lisa, Seven, Uncle Carlos, DeVante, Kenya.
    4. Media. Divide students into small groups and assign each of them a different media format (newspaper article, social media, filmed news segment, podcast, photo journal, etc.) Have each group produce a news segment that uncovers the story behind Khalil’s murder.

    After Reading

    1. Bravery. Many characters throughout the novel exhibit bravery. Discuss the individual actions of various characters who chose to be courageous. Do you think bravery is an inherent trait, or is it something that develops because of being faced with adversity? Compose a response to this question and cite evidence from the text to support your response.
    2. Family Tree. Create a visual family tree for the Carter family. For each family member represented, include the following information: a quote from the text that represents the character, details from the text about their physical description, and an adjective to describe them
    3. Difficult Conversations. Starr has some challenging conversations about race with Chris, Maya, and Hailey. Some of these conversations are productive and lead to a deeper respect and understanding, while others are unsuccessful and leave both parties feeling
    4. Activists. Tupac, the Black Panthers, and Dr. Martin Luther King are a few real-life activists mentioned throughout the course of the novel. As a culminating research project, choose an activist who you find to be inspirational and create a short digital presentation to share with the class.

    Closure: Exit Ticket: Respond to the following questions: Complete the following question stems about the lesson that you want to explore AFTER the lesson: What would happen if___? Why did___? How did___?

    Independent Practice/Assessment: Students will write a summative essay about the events the movie/book The Hate U Give

     

     

     

     

     

     

    Lesson Plan- Whose Streets?

    Grade Levels: Middle/High School

    Subject Areas: Social Studies/ Literacy

    Objectives/Standards: Students will be able to assess and evaluate the events leading up to, and following, the killing of Michael Brown, Jr.,identify and discuss their own racial biases/discriminatory practices, assess flaws in our three branches of government as they relate to issues of citizenship, race, class, age, gender, sexual identity, etc. and create suggestions for improving these institutions, respond verbally to open-ended, Level 2/Level 3 questions, and exhibit and hone active listening skills

Resources

Arsenault, Raymond. Freedom Riders 1961 and the Struggle for Racial Justice /. Oxford ;: Oxford University Press, 2011. Print.

Bloody Sunday History.com Editors – https://www.history.com/topics/black-history/bloody-sunday-video

Choices in Little Rock: a Facing History and Ourselves Teaching Guide: a Facing History and Ourselves – 2005

 

Churchville, John Elliott. Toward Singularity: The Quiescent/Self-Liberative Contradiction as the African Response to European Global Domination. 2013.

Digital Stories. https://drexel.edu/cnvsj/healing-hurt-people/digital-stories/

 

“Commemorating Selma’s Voting Rights Fight.” Weekend All Things Considered, 8 Mar. 2015. Gale In Context: Science, https://link-gale-com.proxy.library.upenn.edu/apps/doc/A406279833/SCIC?u=upenn_main&sid=SCIC&xid=efcb870e. Accessed 11 Apr. 2020.

Civil Rights Movement – Teacher-created Lesson Plan

https://www.commonsense.org/education/lesson-plans/civil-rights-movement#1

Democratic Sacrifice to Democratic Repair.” Political Theory, vol. 44, no. 4, Aug. 2016, pp. 448–469, doi:10.1177/0090591716640314.What Was Freedom Summer? https://www.pbs.org/video/american-experience-what-was-freedom-summer/

directed by Ava DuVernay ; written by Paul Webb ; produced by Christian Colson, Oprah Winfrey, Dede Gardner, Jeremy Kleiner ; Paramount Pictures, Pathé and Harpo Films present a Plan B/Cloud Eight Films/Harpo Films production in association with Ingenious Media. Selma. Los Angeles, CA :Paramount, 2015.

Freedom Riders-https://www.pbs.org/video/american-experience-freedom-riders/

Folayan, Sabaah, Damon Davis, Jennifer MacArthur, Flannery Miller, Christopher McNabb, Lucas Alvarado-Farrar, and Samora Pinderhughes. Whose Streets?, 2017.

Hollars, B. J. The Road South Personal Stories of the Freedom Riders /. Tuscaloosa :: The University of Alabama Press, 2018. Print.

Hooker, Juliet. “Black Lives Matter and the Paradoxes of U.S. Black Politics: From How the Naacp’s Youth & College Division Transformed ActivismJamar II –  How https://sojo.net/articles/when-youth-rise-how-naacps-youth-college-division-transformed-activism

Kizer, Benjamin H. “THE IMPACT OF BROWN VS. BOARD OF EDUCATION.” Gonzaga law review. 53.2 (2017): n. pag. Print.

Little Rock At 60: Student Remembers School Integration Case

Lina Mai – https://time.com/4948704/little-rock-nine-anniversary/

Nelson, Stanley, et al. American Experience. Widescreen, educator’s edition. [United States]: PBS Distribution, 2011.

Roberts, Terrence J. Lessons from Little Rock /. Little Rock, Ark. :: Butler Center Books, 2009. Print.

“Ruby Bridges.” Encyclopedia of World Biography Online, Gale, 2019. Gale In Context: Biography, https://link-gale-com.proxy.library.upenn.edu/apps/doc/K1631010922/BIC?u=upenn_main&sid=BIC&xid=3688e729. Accessed 10 Apr. 2020.

Ruby Bridges: A Simple Act Of Courage

http://teacher.scholastic.com/activities/ruby-bridges/ruby-bridges-for-kids.htm#slideshow

Ruby Bridges and the Civil Rights Movement Slide Show For Grades 3–8 https://www.scholastic.com/teachers/slideshows/teaching-content/ruby-bridges-and-the-civil-rights-movement-slide-show-for-grades/

School Reform Initiative: A Community of Learners. “Text Rendering Experience” https://schoolreforminitiative.org/doc/text_rendering.pdf

Taylor, Keeanga-Yamahtta. From #blacklivesmatter to Black Liberation. , 2016. Print.

The Hate U Give . Angie Thomas – Balzer + Bray, an Imprint Of Harpercollinspublishers
– 2018

The Hate U Give Teacher’s Guide

The Hate U Give Lesson Plan | Teaching Unit: Study …

https://www.gradesaver.com/the-hate-u-give/lesson-plan/study-objectives

Voting Rights Act Of 1965 History.com Editors – https://www.history.com/topics/black-history/voting-rights-act

https://www.history.com/topics/black-history/central-high-school-integration

 

https://junior.scholastic.com/issues/2018-19/012819/this-student-helped-desegregate-america-s-schools.html#TeachingResourcesComponent

 

Walters, R. (2002, Feb 28). Sit-ins omitted from the history books. Los Angeles Sentinel Retrieved from https://proxy.library.upenn.edu/login?url=https://search-proquest-com.proxy.library.upenn.edu/docview/369396227?accountid=1470

Whose Streets Discussion Guide –https://pov-tc.pbs.org/pov/downloads/2018/pov-whosestreets-discussion-guide.pdf

 

Whose Streets?: Lesson Plan Clips

Pov – https://www.pbslearningmedia.org/resource/7d0d3413-e5d6-4fc7-a8cd-8fb9fcbb20ea/whose-streets-lesson-plan/

 

 

Annotated Bibliography

 

Arsenault, Raymond. Freedom Riders 1961 and the Struggle for Racial Justice /. Oxford ;: Oxford University Press, 2011. Print.

The author seeks to explore the six months leading up to voter registration. In the summer of 1961, black, white, old, young, women, and men boarded buses to journey to the southern parts of America to assist with voter registration. The author explains the horrific experiences that the individuals experienced. The author shares the narratives with the White House and what the Freedom Riders encountered while jailed during their journey to the South.

Bloody Sunday History.com Editors – https://www.history.com/topics/black-history/bloody-sunday-video

This video shows the attempt to March to Selma for voting rights. It showed how 600 people crossed the Edmund Pettus Bridge on March 7, 1965. The video also shows how the police stopped the marchers by the peaceful demonstrators with violence. It shows the horrific occurrence of blood shed of peaceful demonstrators by state troopers.

Choices in Little Rock: a Facing History and Ourselves Teaching Guide: a Facing History and Ourselves – 2005

This curriculum guide is a unit for teachers on the history of the Little Rock Nine. It focuses on the attempts to integrate Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas in 1957. The unit focuses on civil choice. Civil Choices define democracy as a choice for ourselves and others.

 

Churchville, John Elliott. Toward Singularity: The Quiescent/Self-Liberative Contradiction as the African Response to European Global Domination. 2013.

 

This text is a culmination of essays about DuBois’ theory of double consciousness. Dubois’ double consciousness defined as the African response to a  the European worldwide sovereignty. It explains the contradiction of racism and the misconception of European dominance, religion, the mis-education of Blacks, the convergence of the history of Asian Americans, the public sphere of Africans, and the philosophy of African and African Americans.

 

“Commemorating Selma’s Voting Rights Fight.” Weekend All Things Considered, 8 Mar. 2015. Gale In Context: Science, https://link-gale-com.proxy.library.upenn.edu/apps/doc/A406279833/SCIC?u=upenn_main&sid=SCIC&xid=efcb870e. Accessed 11 Apr. 2020.

This is a replay of a broadcast on NPR of the commemoration of the March on the Edmund Pettus Bridge where an NPR radio commentator was present. Questions were posed of Deb Elliott of the event. She explained the timeline of the commemoration as well as compared it to the actual March in 1965.

Digital Stories. https://drexel.edu/cnvsj/healing-hurt-people/digital-stories/

This is a series of videos of narratives from clients from the Drexel University Center for Nonviolence and Social Justice. The clients were asked an essential question: What happened to you? The response to the question was posed in their own way and in their own words as it was video recorded. The digital stories were an attempt to produce healing in the clients.

Democratic Sacrifice to Democratic Repair.” Political Theory, vol. 44, no. 4, Aug. 2016, pp. 448–469, doi:10.1177/0090591716640314.What Was Freedom Summer? https://www.pbs.org/video/american-experience-what-was-freedom-summer/

This is a clip from the PBS American Experience which shows Freedom Summer in 1964. It shows The Mississippi Summer Project where a group of volunteers from the North journeyed to the South on a summer campaign to get voters registered. It was a way to show the compelling events that led up to the Voting Rights Bill of 1965.

directed by Ava DuVernay ; written by Paul Webb ; produced by Christian Colson, Oprah Winfrey, Dede Gardner, Jeremy Kleiner ; Paramount Pictures, Pathé and Harpo Films present a Plan B/Cloud Eight Films/Harpo Films production in association with Ingenious Media. Selma. Los Angeles, CA :Paramount, 2015.

This is a historical theatrical film based on the March to Selma in 1965. The March to Selma was in support of voting rights led by James Bevel, Martin Luther King, Jr., Hosea Williams, and John Lewis.  It was directed by Ava Duvernay and written by Paul Webb.

Freedom Riders-https://www.pbs.org/video/american-experience-freedom-riders/

This video clip from the American Experience, Season 23, episode 11, which airs on PBS is about the Freedom Riders. Freedom Riders were a group of volunteers from the American North who traveled to the American South to help with the voting registrations. It is a film that illustrated the courage of the activists who challenged segregation in that area.

Folayan, Sabaah, Damon Davis, Jennifer MacArthur, Flannery Miller, Christopher McNabb, Lucas Alvarado-Farrar, and Samora Pinderhughes. Whose Streets?, 2017.

This is a documentary  based on the accounts of the murder of Michael Brown and riots in Ferguson, Missouri. It premiered in a competition at the 2017 Sundance Festival. It was co directed by Damon Davis and Sabaah Folayan and released in theaters in August, 2017 which marked the anniversary of the death of Michael Brown. It was nominated for the Gotham Independent and Critics Choice awards.

Hollars, B. J. The Road South Personal Stories of the Freedom Riders /. Tuscaloosa :: The University of Alabama Press, 2018. Print.

This text recants the motivating and courageous stories of the activists in their own words. The author sets out on a journey to meet the Freedom Riders and speak to them about their experiences and going along their historic routes. This text is part historical and part inquiry based journalism. It provides a personal look into the lives of the Freedom Riders.

Hooker, Juliet. “Black Lives Matter and the Paradoxes of U.S. Black Politics: From How the Naacp’s Youth & College Division Transformed ActivismJamar II –  How https://sojo.net/articles/when-youth-rise-how-naacps-youth-college-division-transformed-activism

This article explains how and where the youth division of the NAACP was formed. It explains the need for a division during the Civil Rights Movement. It explains how millenials on college campuses today are participating in gubernatorial campaigns to change America.

 

Kizer, Benjamin H. “THE IMPACT OF BROWN VS. BOARD OF EDUCATION.” Gonzaga law review. 53.2 (2017): n. pag. Print.

This text explains how the case Brown vs. The Board of Education impacted race relations in the United States. It was a pivotal point in history. On May 17, 1954 the courts decided that it was unconstitutional for schools to be separated by race. It sanctioned that education be an equal opportunity.

Little Rock At 60: Student Remembers School Integration Case

Lina Mai – https://time.com/4948704/little-rock-nine-anniversary/

This article is about how nine students without any understanding of democracy were prevented from entering Little Rock Central High School. The nine teenagers had to be escorted into the building by federal troops. The students became high profile and were the first to formally integrate an all white school. This article celebrates the 60th anniversary of this day and reflects on the happenings of that day through the eyes of Carlotta Walls Lanier.

Nelson, Stanley, et al. American Experience. Widescreen, educator’s edition. [United States]: PBS Distribution, 2011.

This is a documentary based upon the experiences of the Freedom Riders. It illustrates both sides of the experiences of the activists. It shows a part of American history made as well as the accomplishments of the young activists traveling from what is familiar to an unfamiliar experience. It was an experience that exemplifies personal courage and conviction to go against all obstacles.

Roberts, Terrence J. Lessons from Little Rock /. Little Rock, Ark. :: Butler Center Books, 2009. Print.

The author in this text seeks to clearly explain the story of the desegregation of Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas. The text explains the experience of the students in an intimate way despite the news reports. The author seeks to share the stories of the students in a humanistic manner as a relatable experience.

“Ruby Bridges.” Encyclopedia of World Biography Online, Gale, 2019. Gale In Context: Biography, https://link-gale-com.proxy.library.upenn.edu/apps/doc/K1631010922/BIC?u=upenn_main&sid=BIC&xid=3688e729. Accessed 10 Apr. 2020.

This article tells the story of who Ruby Bridges is and her experience within the Civil Rights Movement. It explains how Ruby Bridges was a six year old Black girl pioneer as she attempted to integrate an all white elementary school in New Orleans, Louisiana. Ruby Bridges was isolated and protected by United States marshals.  A Norman Rockwell portrait depicted her walk with US marshalls to school. She went on to become a civil rights advocate in her later years and become a founder of the Ruby Bridges Foundation.

Ruby Bridges: A Simple Act Of Courage

https://www.scholastic.com/teachers/activities/teaching-content/ruby-bridges-simple-act-courage/?eml=SSO%2Faff%2F20180319%2F96525%2Ftxtl%2FGenericLink%2F%2F%2F%2F%2F%2F%2F&affiliate_id=96525&clickId=3068231420

 

This is an interactive story with the Scholastic magazine that explains the life of African American children in the 1950s in segregated South. This is an attempt to allow students to achieve a better understanding of the impact of Ruby Bridges in the Civil Rights movement. A student made clip is part of this activity.

Ruby Bridges and the Civil Rights Movement Slide Show For Grades 3–8 https://www.scholastic.com/teachers/slideshows/teaching-content/ruby-bridges-and-the-civil-rights-movement-slide-show-for-grades/

This slideshow depicts not only Ruby Bridges’s experience, but several other pivotal experiences in the Civil Rights Movement. The slideshow shows pictures of inequality and segregation during the Civil Rights Movement. Ruby Bridges became a national icon when she was six year old seeking to integrate an all white elementary school in New Orleans, Louisiana.

School Reform Initiative: A Community of Learners. “Text Rendering Experience” https://schoolreforminitiative.org/doc/text_rendering.pdf

This is an activity to deconstruct a text and empowers students to decide what part of a text is important. Students choose text within a passage that is important to them and shares that portion with the class. The sharing of the text is done without worry of being criticised. This is a research based effective strategy for deconstructing text.

Taylor, Keeanga-Yamahtta. From #blacklivesmatter to Black Liberation. , 2016. Print.

The author explores the murders of Mike Brown in Ferguson, the choking of Eric Garner in New York City and challenges the indemnity of the police officers who carried out the violent acts of these individuals and the violence against Black people. The Black Lives Matter movement has awakened a new group of young activists. The author presents an argument about mass incarceration, structural racism, and unemployment to reignite a new way to incite black liberation.

 

The Hate U Give

Angie Thomas – Balzer + Bray, an Imprint Of Harpercollinspublishers – 2018

The author explores racism, activism, and police brutality through the eyes of a teenage girl who is in between two worlds. She attends a wealthy school in the suburbs and lives in an urban community. The balance between both worlds is broken when her childhood best friend is shot by the police. From this incident, the teenager learns her place in the world and finds her voice in the midst of activism.

Voting Rights Act Of 1965 History.com Editors – https://www.history.com/topics/black-history/voting-rights-act

This is an article and video about the Voting Rights Act of 1965. It is a video narrated by Professor Yohuru Williams and an article written by History.com editors. It explains the law signed by President Johnsn that sought to vanquish the legal obstacles at the local and state level that impeded African Americans from voting. African Americans were unable to exercise the privilege of voting which was guaranteed under the United States Constitution’s 15th Amendment. The Voting Rights Act was considered one of the most pivotal pieces of legislation in the United States.

 

This Student Helped Desegregate U.s. Schools

https://junior.scholastic.com/issues/2018-19/012819/this-student-helped-desegregate-america-s-schools.html#TeachingResourcesComponent

 

This article explains how Barbara Johns led a walkout leading to a landmark Supreme Court case. In 1951, Johnson led her classmates to protest against the subpar conditions in her public school in Prince Edward County, Virginia. Johns quietly convinced and organized the student body to leave the school building until a new building was built. Her case was one of the cases looked at during Brown vs. The Board of Education.

 

 

 

Walters, R. (2002, Feb 28). Sit-ins omitted from the history books. Los Angeles Sentinel Retrieved from https://proxy.library.upenn.edu/login?url=https://search-proquest-com.proxy.library.upenn.edu/docview/369396227?accountid=1470

This text looks back on the Midwest during the civil rights movement. It explains the author’s participation in the Wichita, KS sit ins which led to a policy change on how to assist customers not based on race.

Whose Streets Discussion Guide –https://pov-tc.pbs.org/pov/downloads/2018/pov-whosestreets-discussion-guide.pdf

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.9-10.1.D-Respond thoughtfully to diverse perspectives, summarize points of agreement and disagreement, and, when warranted, qualify or justify their own views and understanding and make new connections in light of the evidence and reasoning presented.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.11-12.1.D-Respond thoughtfully to diverse perspectives; synthesize comments, claims, and evidence made on all sides of an issue; resolve contradictions when possible; and determine what additional information or research is required to deepen the investigation or complete the task.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.SL.4Present information, findings, and supporting evidence such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning and the organization, development, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.9-10.4Present information, findings, and supporting evidence clearly, concisely, and logically such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning and the organization, development, substance, and style are appropriate to purpose, audience, and task.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.11-12.4Present information, findings, and supporting evidence, conveying a clear and distinct perspective, such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning, alternative or opposing perspectives are addressed, and the organization, development, substance, and style are appropriate to purpose, audience, and a range of formal and informal tasks.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.9-10.5Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.11-12.5Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest.

National Standards for History

4.2C.1Analyze the push-pull factors which led to increased immigration, for the first time from China but especially from Ireland and Germany. [Analyze cause-and-effect relationships]

9.1B.4Explain the reasons for the “return to domesticity” and how it affected family life and women’s careers. [Consider multiple perspectives]

10.2A.1Explain the sluggishness in the overall rate of economic growth and the relative stagnation of wages since 1973. [Utilize quantitative data]

10.2A.2Analyze the economic and social effects of the sharp increase in the labor force participation of women and new immigrants. [Analyze cause-and-effect relationships]

10.2B.1Analyze the new immigration policies after 1965 and the push-pull factors that prompted a new wave of immigrants. [Analyze cause-and-effect relationships]

10.2B.3Explore the continuing population flow from cities to suburbs, the internal migrations from the “Rustbelt” to the “Sunbelt,” and the social and political effects of these changes. [Analyze cause-and-effect relationships]See More 10.2B.3 Resources

10.2B.4Explain changes in the size and composition of the traditional American family and their ramifications. [Explain historical continuity and change]

10.2B.5Explain the shifting age structure of the population with the aging of the “baby boomers,” and grasp the implications of the “greying of America.” [Utilize quantitative data]

9.2A.1Analyze causes of the worlds accelerating population growth rate and connections between population growth and economic and social development in many countries. [Analyze multiple causation]

9.2A.2Describe the global proliferation of cities and the rise of the megalopolis and assess the impact of urbanization on family life, standards of living, class relations, and ethnic identity. [Analyze cause-and-effect relationships]

9.3A.5Assess the degree to which both human rights and democratic ideals and practices have been advanced in the world during the 20th century. [Formulate historical questions]

5.AIdentify issues and problems in the past and analyze the interests, values, perspectives, and points of view of those involved in the situation.

5.CIdentify relevant historical antecedents and differentiate from those that are inappropriate and irrelevant to contemporary issues.See More 5.C Resources

National Standards for Civics and Government

V.B.2.4explain how political rights are secured by constitutional government and by such means as the rule of law, checks and balances, an independent judiciary, and a vigilant citizenry

II.D.3.2.B.1 explain the following principles widely considered to be fundamental to American constitutional democracy: constitutional government, including rule of law

III.D.1.1.Aexplain why the rule of law has a central place in American society, e.g., it establishes limits on both those who govern and the governed

V.B.1.4explain how personal rights are secured in American constitutional democracy by such means as the rule of law, checks and balances, an independent judiciary, a vigilant citizenry

II.D.1.5Iexplain how the individual’s rights to life, liberty, and property are protected by the trial and appellate levels of the judicial process and by the principal varieties of law, e.g., constitutional, criminal, and civil law

I.B.2.2explain why the rule of law means more than simply having laws

II.A.1.4.Cexplain the central ideas of American constitutional government such as the Constitution as a “higher law” that authorizes and legitimizes an “energetic” and effective government of limited powers

III.D.2.5explain why due process rights in administrative and legislative procedures are essential for the protection of individual rights and the maintenance of limited government

I.B.2.4identify different varieties of law, e.g., divine law, natural law, common law, statute law, international law

Vocabulary:

  • allegiance
  • citizenship
  • classism
  • cultural appropriation
  • equity
  • Ferguson, Missouri
  • indivisible
  • micro-aggression
  • power
  • police brutality
  • privilege
  • racism
  • sexism
  • Bob McCulloch
  • Jay Nixon
  • Barack Obama
  • Ron Thompson

 

Essential Question: How are the relationships between black/brown people perceived in the community? What are the ways that police view black/brown people in urban communities? What are the ways that one can improve the relationships between the police and black/brown people in urban communities?

Direct Instruction: The teacher will show clips from the PBS Whose streets? series and then have the students conduct a gallery walk to display and discuss images of police dogs in Ferguson juxtaposed with images of police dogs from the 1960s Civil Rights Movement era.

Guided Practice: Students will complete a Venn diagram with the teacher comparing the events from Whose Streets and the events of the Civil Rights Movement

Closure: Exit Ticket: Respond to the following questions: Complete the following question stems about the lesson that you want to explore AFTER the lesson: What would happen if___? Why did___? How did___?

Independent Practice: Students will write a comparative essay on the events of the Civil Rights Movement and Whose Streets?

 

 

 

 

 

Appendix

PA Narrative Writing Standards:

Focus: CC.1.4.6.N

Engage and orient the reader by establishing a context and introducing a narrator and/or characters.

Content: CC.1.4.6.O

Use narrative techniques such as dialogue, description, and pacing to develop experiences, events, and/or characters; use precise words and phrases, relevant descriptive details, and sensory language to convey experiences and events.

Organization: CC.1.4.6.P

Organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally and logically, using a variety of transition words, phrases, and clauses to convey sequence and signal shifts from one time frame or setting to another; provide a conclusion that follows from the narrated experiences and events.

Style: CC.1.4.6.Q

Write with an awareness of the stylistic aspects of writing. Vary sentence patterns for meaning, reader/listener interest, and style.  Use precise language. Develop and maintain a consistent voice.

Conventions: CC.1.4.6.R

Demonstrate a grade-appropriate command of the conventions of standard English grammar, usage, capitalization, punctuation, and spelling.

 

CCSS Standards

Narrative Writing- W.6.3

Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, relevant descriptive details, and well-structured event sequences.

Text Rendering Activity

Purpose: To collaboratively construct meaning, clarify, and expand our thinking about a text or document

Roles: A facilitator to guide the process A scribe to track the phrases and words that are shared

Introduction: Take a few moments to review the document and mark the sentence, the phrase, and the word(s) that you think are particularly important for our work. It can be helpful to number the paragraphs or pages.

 Process: It’s okay if participants repeat the same sentence, phrase, or word.

  1. 1. First Round- Each person shares a sentence from the document that she/he thinks/feels is particularly significant.
  2. Second Round– Each person shares a phrase that she/he thinks/feels is particularly significant. The scribe records each phrase.
  3. Third Round- Each person shares the word that she/he thinks/feels is particularly significant. The scribe records each word.
  4. Discuss– The group discusses what they heard and what it says about the document. • What new insights have you gained about the text by looking at it in this way? • What do you think this text is essentially about?
  5. Debrief– The group debriefs the text rendering process

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PA Writing Assessment       

 

Focus Content Organization Style Conventions
4 Sharp, distinct controlling point made about a single topic with evident awareness of task Substantial, specific, and/or illustrative content demonstrating strong development and sophisticated ideas Sophisticated arrangement of content with evident and/or subtle transitions Precise, illustrative use of a variety of words and sentence structures to create consistent writer’s voice and tone appropriate to audience Evident control of grammar, mechanics, usage and sentence formation
3 Apparent point made about a single topic with sufficient awareness of task Sufficiently developed content Functional arrangement of content that sustains a

logical order

Functional use of a variety of words and sentence structures that may or may not create writer’s voice and tone appropriate to audience Sufficient control of grammar, mechanics, usage and sentence formation
2  Evidence of a single controlling topic but no apparent point Significantly limited content with inadequate elaboration or explanation Confused or inconsistent arrangement of content with or without attempts at transition Generic word choice and limited control of sentence structures that inhibit voice and tone Significant weaknesses in control of grammar, mechanics, usage and sentence formation
1  Minimal evidence of controlling topic Superficial and/or severely limited content Minimal control of content arrangement Minimal control of word choice and sentence structures
0 Unscorable

Is illegible; i.e., includes so many undecipherable words that no sense can be made of the response Is incoherent, i.e., words are legible but syntax is so garbled that response makes no sense Is insufficient response; i.e., does not include enough for domains to be assessed adequately Is a blank paper

Off prompt

Is readable but did not respond to prompt

 

 

 

 

 

Venn Diagram

 

 

 

 

 

This is a discussion guide for teachers to use and includes details about Forward Through Ferguson, race, the origins of the Black Lives Matter Movement, data from the United State Department and the Ferguson Commission, a map of the wealth imbalance of St. Louis, Missouri as well as discussion prompts for next steps and materials. It is a guide for discussion among students, teachers, family, friends, and the community. It is meant to be a piece to facilitate an openness and understanding one another’s viewpoints and listening to understand one another better.