Exploring Community Local and Global though Primary Documents and Artifacts: Where do I Stand and What Can I Learn from the Past?

Author: Alla Dolderer

School/Organization:

Northeast High School

Year: 2020

Seminar: The City in History

Grade Level: 9-12

Keywords: artifacts, ESL, local community, low proficiency ESL, Philadelphia history, primary documents

School Subject(s): ESL

This unit is specifically designed for low-proficiency ESL students at high school level, but it can be adapted even for mainstream high school student population. Teachers who work with this student population know the inherent challenges of addressing their needs, the low English language proficiency often being the least of their problems. Indeed, many of our students come from war-wracked and/or poverty-stricken parts of the world where they received interrupted and/or substandard schooling, or else no schooling at all. Even students who did attend school more or less regularly often did not acquire literacy skills needed for success in high school and beyond. There is a proportion of students ready for high school, but it is rather small, and therefore instruction has to be both heavily differentiated and also highly structured to meet the very diverse needs of my students.

To meet their needs, this unit employs task-based instruction and lesson design ideas from QTEL (Quality Teaching for English Learners). Subject matter taught via task-based instruction involves exploration of the following essential questions: What is a community? What is a good city and how does this city relate to the community? Where do I stand in local and global communities? To facilitate exploration of these most important questions, this unit features delving into primary sources (e.g. excerpts from Plato’s Republic, Aristotle’s Politics, and Engels’ “The Great Towns”), artifacts, such as paintings from the Philadelphia Museum of Art and objects from the Penn Museum, and also historical videos and educational online sources, such as UNESCO’s World Heritage List. Indeed, the idea I have is to engage students via resources that provide authentic links to concepts of community, city, and one’s heritage, whether cultural or personal. Through interaction with such resources in highly structured activities, students will have the opportunity to examine fundamental concepts of community, city, and heritage, for the purpose of finding their own place and voice.

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Full Unit Text
Content Objectives

Problem Statement

As an ESL teacher at Northeast High School working primarily with Level 1 and 2 proficiency students (according to WIDA guidelines), I always look for new ways to make the curriculum content more accessible to my students. At times, this is a very challenging task, as my students face not only the barrier of limited language proficiency, but also roughly half of my students lack fundamental literacy skills. Indeed, my classroom is a near-representation of the map of the world: I have students from such countries as Brazil, Guatemala, Afghanistan, Belarus, Syria, Ecuador, Bangladesh and Congo (to name just a few), and sometimes my students arrive to the US from war-wracked nations where they simply did not attend school for a number of years because of safety concerns, or from countries where the school day is shortened, or else education is substandard or not given high priority due to family obligations. As a result, though my students are grouped by their language proficiency level and therefore may seem more or less homogenous, in effect they are anything but that.

As an educator trying to deliver grade-appropriate content to students with very limited language proficiency and vastly differing literacy skills, my job can be difficult. The conventional “I do, we do, you do” lesson design formula does not always work with my students. They are often lost during all three phases and need immensely more structure and scaffolding than conventional students. To provide this assistance, in my four years in the school district I have tried different approaches, and have taken every professional development opportunity that came my way. While some of these approaches and strategies turned out to be effective, such as strategies I learned during the QTEL sessions, recently I discovered one single approach that proved to be “the one” for me—task-based instruction. When I design lessons according to its particular structure, my objectives are almost always met within the timeframe I allocate initially. However, because of the limited time I have had outside of school hours, I have never ventured to research this instructional approach in depth, and because of the tedious preparation that tasks require, I use the task-based instruction lesson design approach very sparsely in my classes. Writing this curriculum is an opportunity for me both to learn more about task-based instruction and design lessons that will utilize its format.

But limited language proficiency and inadequate literacy skills may not be the greatest problems my students have. I think that the biggest struggle is their feeling of displacement and loss of belonging to a place. Indeed, my students are all recent arrivals with no idea of how to navigate this new country, and how to make sense of it. Moreover, my students feel alienated even in their own neighborhoods. For example, when we were discussing the ancillary to the Edge Fundamentals curriculum book titled “What is Community?” students were fascinated with the many facets of the latter. Most of the students reported that they were not familiar with any of these fundamentals in their new communities, including rules, services, and various opportunities. In addition, none, and I mean zero of roughly 100 students I teach (I have many students twice during the day) knew of the cultural attractions that Philadelphia has to offer, such as museums, historical sites, parks etc. It really struck me as ludicrous to have students who live in what our seminar leader described as a “World Heritage City” without knowing anything at all about Philadelphia, let alone taking advantage of what it has to offer.

To remediate this, I’ve decided to tap into classical and historical ideas of community and belonging, both at local and global levels, and also focus on Philadelphia’s rich cultural sites. I want my students to examine where they come from and analyze their communities from different angles, noting how these communities have  shaped who they are today; they should also take pride in living in one of the most incredible cities on this planet. To reach this end, I will begin with examining some of the seminal primary sources that explore the idea of how a community shapes one’s identity, such as excerpts from Aristotle’s Politics, Plato’s Republic, and Ibn Khaldūn’s The Muqaddimah. I believe that primary sources are especially appropriate to use, as they are both conceptually and linguistically easy-to-follow, even as they deal with eternal questions and dilemmas. For example, in Chapter 3 Plato maintains that in the “just” city the terminally ill will be left to die naturally to free up resources for the treatment of those whose conditions are curable (Plato, 279), a kind of early triage, and those caught in a lie will be immediately chastised (in a way left to imagination) lest they contaminate with their vice others (Plato, 215). I feel that these eternal moral dilemmas are still relevant and relatable to a present-day student.

I also want to introduce to my students some of the wonderful things that Philadelphia has to offer. For this purpose, I would like to organize two trips with them—one to the Penn museum, and another to the Philadelphia Museum of Art. During these two visits, students will have the opportunity both to examine the great artifacts illustrating remarkable achievements and cultural histories of cities, and also boast of the cultural heritage of their own countries and regions. To meet this end, I intend to design a few research projects where students will choose an artifact and write an account according to a set of criteria.

But my students also need to familiarize themselves with the vast cultural background of Philadelphia itself. I think one way to do so is to design a project to describe linguistic landscapes of my students’ communities. The rationale for this project is that my students are settled in cultural and linguistic pockets of Philadelphia where their parents (and often they themselves) find both employment and services in their native languages. I believe they will enjoy analyzing some of the instances of advertisements, job postings, service offerings, etc., in their native languages, exploring how these language acts function in bilingual or multilingual communities, what ends they meet, and how they relate to identities of community residents. Last but not least, I want to locate a simulation program, or design a WebQuest, or else find some other way of enabling my students to explore Philadelphia’s historical sites and attractions. Because it is not feasible for me to visit these places with my students, I want them to at least know of their existence. One simple way to accomplish this is to organize a field trip to One Liberty Observation Deck, located at the very top of City Hall. This important downtown Philadelphia attraction features a simulation where students can both see many of  Philadelphia’s sightseeing attractions from high above, and read their brief descriptions. In addition, I will distribute information about free library passes to Philadelphia’s and surrounding area’s museums, and provide any pertinent information about free events in their communities and beyond.

I believe it is necessary to begin my unit with three fundamental pieces of writing that will serve as a foundation for my unit: excerpts from Aristotle’s Politics, Plato’s Republic, and Ibn Khaldun’s The Muqaddimah 

One of the most interesting passages in Plato’s Republic deals with the different stances towards the value of life when it comes to sickness. In a nutshell, it argues that every person in the city has their daily tasks to perform, which are presumed to constitute life’s meaning. Therefore, when an ordinary person, such as an artisan, gets sick, he would rather die than be subjected to a lengthy treatment that would prevent him from fulfilling his obligations, but a rich person has no such obligations in place, so they will take extraordinary measures in preserving their life. The following excerpt from the passage illustrates this idea perfectly, “…if his [ordinary person’s]body is not equal to strain, he dies and is freed from all his troubles… [b]ut the rich man, we say, has no such appointed task, the necessity of abstaining from which renders life intolerable” (Plato, 275-277).  I think it will be interesting to explore this idea in context of present dynamics between the rich and the poor, and also think about the value of life per se. The current movement “Black Lives Matter” can be discussed—what it means, and how it connects to the excerpt at hand. The inexplicable obsession with lives of the rich can also be brought into discussion, as, for example, the uncanny interest with the Kardashians’ clan.

Another fascinating passage from Plato’s Republic can be contrasted with ideas in Aristotle’s Politics. It concerns with the right of property. In  the Politics, this right is  discussed in relation to the “guardians,” or the permanent city guard, and in the Republic in relation to community members generally. Aristotle’s text, chapter II, expresses the idea that “[i]t is clearly better that property should be private, but the use of it common” (252). Furthermore, it is stated, “Again, how immensely greater is the pleasure, when a man feels a thing to be his own; for surely the love of self is a feeling implanted by nature” (252). In contrast, when Plato enumerates the conditions for keeping soldiers, several ideas emerge, such as that “none must possess any private property,” “none must have any habitation or treasure-house,” and last but not least, “like soldiers on campaign they will live together.” I think it will be interesting to compare and contrast these two short excerpts from the texts, and make a prediction in regards to what may happen or has happened in history when 1) property is private; 2) property is nationalized and becomes “common,” as during the Soviet Union times, when all the private property was seized; 3) people are not allowed to have any possessions.

When it comes to Aristotle’s Politics, one of the most fascinating passages meriting special attention is in Book IV. It deals with the necessity of maintaining the middle class. Indeed, Aristotle claims that “the middle class is least likely to shrink from rule, or to be over-ambitious for it” (255). In contrast, Aristotle overtly disapproves of both the very rich and the very poor, citing that due to the improper education, the rich “never learn, even at school, the habit of obedience,” while the very poor are “too degraded,” and therefore “must be ruled like slaves” (255). I believe that my students may enjoy reading and analyzing this passage, and then revisiting it in the context of present society. Does this idea still hold true? What is the definition of the “middle class” so lauded by Aristotle? Is it still the same, or has it changed over time? Is the middle class  still something to aspire to? I think that both Republican and Democratic appeal to the middle class can be viewed and analyzed in conjunction with reading this text.

Another fundamental text can be read in conjunction with the passage from Book IV is the excerpt from Friedrich Engels’ “The Great Towns.” Engels goes to great lengths in describing the utterly atrocious living conditions of the working class in Manchester. He criticizes the bourgeois’ deliberate indifference to the working class’s living conditions: The very design of Manchester– its skillful array of shops and structures –conceals the chain of offensive shacks and other derelict structures from the easily shocked sensitivities of the middle class. This text, besides shifting compassion from middle class to the class of poor working men, provides marked contrast with Aristotle’s ideas in regard to the superiority of the middle class, and also may serve as the wonderful conduit for teaching both perspective and description. Indeed, Engels’ descriptive talent is unparalleled in its power to captivate the mind of the reader with the details of living conditions so inappropriate to a human being that it makes one wonder how such a thing was allowed to be. When it comes to pedagogical applications related to grammar, this text may be very useful in such tasks as choosing adjectives and analyzing the structure of a descriptive sentence and, on a larger scale, a paragraph. Students may analyze the descriptive devices used by Engels and replicate them in their own writing.

When talking about fundamental texts, I believe that Ibn Khaldun’s The Muqaddimah  merits special attention. Indeed, I have many students coming from eastern countries with rich nomadic history who will be very much interested learning from a seminal text originating in the part of the world they come from. The ideas expressed in this text are so original, and the text’s language is so linguistically simple that I find it especially relevant for use in my ELD1 classes. In a nutshell, the author maintains that sedentary people develop all sorts of vices. For instance, Ibn Khaldun claims that “[t] hey are accustomed to luxury and success in worldly occupations and to indulgence in worldly desires… their souls are colored with all kinds of blameworthy and evil qualities.” He juxtaposes this utterly negative image of sedentary people (“city dwellers” for the purpose of the lesson) with the image of nomadic Bedouins, whom he describes as being “closer to the first natural state and more remote from the evil habits that have been impressed upon the souls (of sedentary people) through numerous and ugly, blameworthy customs.” This short treatise on vices and virtues of two kinds of people may lead to an abundance of teaching applications. For example, students may compare and contrast sedentary and nomadic people as described in the text. They may brainstorm the list of “virtues” and “vices” that both types of people may have, based on both the text and their own opinions, and compose a comparison and contrast paragraph. They may also do a research project on Bedouins and their culture. One more interesting teaching idea is to compare and contrast the American stereotypes of city and countryside, exploring their similarity with Ibn  Khaldun’s ideas regarding nomadic and sedentary people.

Another ancient piece of writing that may go in tandem with The Muqaddimah is Psalm 48 from The Bible. In fact, during our seminar this fascinating piece of writing was compared to the former one. The ideas expressed in this text are polarly different from the ideas in The Muqaddimah. Here, in Psalm 48:8, New Century Version, Jerusalem is described as a completely safe and indestructible fortress, “First we heard
and now we have seen that God will always keep his city safe. It is the city of the Lord All-Powerful, the city of our God.” This city is not only portrayed as having divine magical power to protect its citizens, but is also described as dispensing wisdom, justice, joy etc. For instance, in verse 11 it is stated, “Mount Zion is happy and all the towns of Judah rejoice, because your decisions are fair.” This assertion, of course, sharply contradicts with the one in The Muqaddimah, where city dwellers are described as being full of vices by default, by the experience of living in a city. I think these two texts lend themselves to such assignments as writing a comparison and contrast paragraph, and also showing how to cite material from the Bible and short texts.

But this Psalm also lends itself to such tasks as language and structure analysis. In the conducive to comprehension New Century Version students can scan the text for such features as 1) imperative sentences 2) simple, compound, and complex sentences 3) coordinating and subordinating conjunctions.

 

 

Some of the most interesting works of art related to the theme of the City, although currently not on view, are available through the Philadelphia Art Museum website. These images can be explored online during carefully structured tasks. Below I discuss and depict ONLY IMAGES THAT DO NOT REQUIRE COPYRIGHT PERMISSION, but which, nevertheless, I find the most interesting and pertinent to the unit:

  1. “New York” by Abraham Walkowitz (created around 1913-1915). (Below only the bottom part of the painting is shown.) I believe this painting describes very aptly the urban overbuilding and its lack of character. I find it especially fascinating that the gigantic mass of buildings is overpowering in comparison with whatever rubble, which looks like crowds of people, is on the ground.
  2. “Skyscraper” by Howard Norton Cook, completed in 1929. It appears that this colossal structure has its pinnacle right in the sky. This portrayal of the building impresses so much with its sheer scope that it makes one dizzy just to look at it.
  3. “City of Ambition” by Alfred Stieglitz. This photograph was taken in 1910. I find this image especially fascinating as it defines the term “ambition.” What is ambition? The factories? The copious gas emissions? The massive buildings? Students will benefit from discussing the nature of ambition as described by the author.
  4. “The Tambourine (East Side New York)” was painted by Jerome Myers around 1905. It offers a totally different picture of New York—a humane one. What are people doing? Why are they happy? Why are the majority of people women and children? These are all great questions to ask about the picture. But it also makes us see faces of New Yorkers as contrasted with the structures in the previous paintings.

One must-have field trip that the students will definitely benefit from is to the Penn Museum. One exhibition in the Middle East Galleries–“Journey to the City”–fits perfectly with the unit. This exhibition showcases many objects found in the Middle East from Neolithic period to the present, and the overarching theme is “a settlement.” Indeed, the history of human development shows that once people decided to settle down and become farmers instead of hunters, their achievements in all areas of knowledge began to speed up at unprecedented rate. There is something magical about settling down and forming a community—magical and yet utilitarian, as it seems to be a necessary condition for human discovery and progress. It is worth tapping into on a school field trip. During the trip, students may be assigned to look at objects from ancient to modern (different groups of students may be assigned different periods), and then make a timeline explicating the change (or consistency) in the needs of city dwellers. What objects were popular two thousand years ago? Why? What objects became popular a few centuries later? How did the taste change? How did technology change?

The Philadelphia World Heritage City film provides many applications for my classroom. The film itself provides an overview of Philadelphia’s attractions, many  (if not all) of which my students have never heard. Indeed, I found out that my students are often insulated in their respective cultural and linguistic communities, and just don’t venture beyond the boundaries of their immediate neighborhoods. I believe that designing a task connected to this film will be a great starting point for introducing students to Philadelphia’s many cultural attractions. Because this video features many visuals that accompany the script, I believe designing a listening task in its context will be a perfect activity measuring listening comprehension. The task can be performed during the lesson, and students may check their comprehension later at home by watching the video in their respective native languages. The video features subtitles in twelve different languages, most of them spoken by my students, such as Spanish, Mandarin, Portuguese, Hindi and Arabic. Students whose L1s are not featured may aid their comprehension by activating English subtitles. This film can be followed by the lesson exploring the significance of personal heritage. Here, I’m copying some of the suggestions from the World Heritage program manager Melissa Steven’s presentation exactly as they are on the slides: 1) Show and tell – bring in something inherited and explain its significance to you; 2) heirloom stories – tell the story of an heirloom in the first person as that heirloom 3) map out your personal timeline – important historical moments from your life (personal, family, Philadelphia, world) events.

Furthermore, the ideas from the presentation of the veteran teacher Sarah Sharp also provide excellent ancillary activities to watching the film. For example, the crossword puzzle that explores comprehension of main ideas in the article provides a nice follow-up to the above-referenced task, especially for low-proficiency students. Another very interesting activity from the teachers’ guide to the film incorporated into Sarah’s presentation is research and design of  “trading cards” for students’ favorite invention or institution shown in the film (see Resources section). But my favorite idea sprang from exploration of the UNESCO website’s World Heritage list. Students can select a country and do a research project on one of the sites on the World Heritage list.

Teaching Strategies

At the very heart of task-based instruction lies interaction, which is geared to address the problematic areas of interlanguage, commonly defined as a subjective version of language constructed by a learner (Pica 1994). The very concept of task-based instruction sprang from the sociolinguistic approach to language learning emphasizing interaction via negotiation of meaning—a powerful and attractive alternative to the conventional grammar-translation method dominating language teaching and learning for decades. The critics of this approach, however, point out that it provides inadequate focus on form and therefore produces language users deficient in knowledge (and usage) of basic grammar rules. As a result, such theorists as Long (1991) endeavor to address this shortcoming by arguing for the necessity of the “Focus on Form” approach, where the negotiation of meaning become effective by virtue of providing those involved with grammar and other tools and scaffolds to complete the task at hand.

As Dougherty and Pica (1986) aptly describe in their study, students produce large numbers of ungrammatical utterances during tasks, and therefore the teacher becomes a source of imparting knowledge needed for development of this competence (p. 322). They complete their argument by stating, “If a primary goal of classroom language instruction is the development of communicative competence, a component of which is linguistic competence… this important finding must not be ignored” (p. 322). Foster and Skehan  (1999) are in favor of synthesizing the now largely outmoded in second language acquisition context form-oriented approach with communicative activities, arguing that “The clearest alternative to such a form-oriented approach is to emphasize meaning, and a range of approaches have been founded on more communicative language teaching activities” (p. 216). Foster and Skehan (1999) also discuss the certain advantages of teacher planning for tasks vs student planning, pointing out that teacher planning is both “more standardized” and is  “likely to introduce a greater level of efficiency to all learners since it is the product of preparation on a teacher’s part, and a greater degree of organization” (p. 223).

So, what happens during interactions? Long (1989) cites comprehension checks, clarification requests, and confirmation checks. Later, the significance or recasts and precasts are also discussed. Skehan (2003) explains that recast is an instance where “an interlocutor rephrases something said by a nonnative speaker, and so provides a model and feedback to the learner when the learner may be most open to such a contribution” (p. 4). In contrast, precast is when “teacher or learner anticipations of trouble immediately ahead” (p. 4). The latter two strategies open the possibility of two kinds of scaffolds for task-based instruction: before the task and during the task.

So, what is a task? According to Page and Mede (2018), a task ought to contain both a communicative purpose and an outcome, so its primary purpose “is to communicate by expressing the meaning” (p. 372). They add that “the most common characteristics of tasks is that they resemble a real-life context and engage learners in in thinking about the use of language in different situations” (p. 373).

Ellis and Shintani (2014, p. 135) come up with 4 necessary components of an activity to be defined as task:

  1. Its focus should be on meaning
  2. It should have some sort of “gap”
  3. Learners should rely on resources they already possess to complete the task
  4. There will be an outcome other than the usage of language.

They also outline 6 main types of tasks:

  1. Listing
  2. Ordering and sorting
  3. Comparing
  4. Problem-Sorting
  5. Sharing personal experiences
  6. Creative tasks

It is also important to talk about distinctive task phases and implementation options in each one of them. Though there are several variations in how a task can be structured, I prefer the structure with 3 phases—“pre-task phase,” “main-task phase,” and “post-task phase.” I will be using different variations of pedagogical activities in each phase of the task, but the main structure will remain as outlined above. Below, I attach the table titled “Implementation options in the different phases of a task-based lesson.”

 

Phase Options Description
Pre-Task Phase 1.     Modeling performance of the task

 

2.     Pre-teaching language

 

 

3.     Schema-developing

 

4.      Strategic planning

1.     Students listen or watch the task being performed by ‘experts’

2.     The teacher presents language that will be useful for performing the task

3.     The  teacher elicits and extends students’ knowledge of the topic of the task

4.     The students are given time to prepare to perform the task before they actually perform it.

Main-Task Phase 1.     Time pressure

2.     Contextual support

3.     Explicit instruction

4.      Surprise element

1.     Students are given only a limited amount of time to perform the task

2.     Students are allowed to access the input data when they perform the task

3.     The teacher takes time out from the performance of the task to explicitly teach a linguistic feature that is useful for performing the task

4.      Additional information relevant to the task is provided after the students have started to perform the task

Post-Task Phase 1.     Repeat performance

 

2.     Report

 

 

3.      Language work

1.     Students are asked to repeat the task

2.     Students are asked to report the outcome of the task to the whole class

3.      Students complete language exercises related to linguistic problems that they experienced when performing the task

 

What I really like about this particular structure is that it gives some options about what has to be accomplished during all three phases of the task. Its structure, though in some ways reminding of the conventional I do / we do / you do format suggested by the SDP, is nevertheless unique in the way that the focus of the lesson is the task itself, and students may be given tools to accomplish it as they are working on it. In addition, though task does not always require manual manipulation of materials, it requires the creation of some sort of a product. Finally, it should be noted that, in my opinion, this lesson format is not quite appropriate for everyday instruction, but nevertheless should be utilized as much as possible. There are times when more direct instruction is needed for teaching such sophisticated material as the paragraph structure and reading comprehension strategies, but to practice these skills nothing can be more useful for the ESL students than the task-based instruction.

When designing worksheets for tasks (see Appendix), I also incorporate many of the ideas from the QTEL (Quality Teaching for English Learners) training I took a few years ago. As described in the pamphlet from the SDP’s Office of Multilingual Curriculum and Programs, QTEL training provides “customized, research-based professional learning opportunities to develop the capacity of educators to design, implement and monitor quality learning opportunities for all students and ELs in particular.” And indeed, it was probably the best PD I took during my stay in the SDP, as it was not only the most extensive and intensive learning opportunity, but also the training that armed teachers with concrete strategies for student success. However, its main condition for implementation–putting students in groups of four from the very beginning of the school year— is something I found not feasible with my Level 1 students for a plethora of reasons. Even though I do not implement QTEL model as it was intended by its creators, I certainly integrate some of its ideas in my lessons. In this curriculum, pretty much all the ideas for tasks’ worksheets come from that training, though modified, of course, to meet my objectives.

Classroom Activities

Lesson 1

Lesson Title City in Art Part 1
PA Standards CC.1.2.9–10.H Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing the validity of reasoning and relevance of evidence.

CC.1.3.9–10.J Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases; gather vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.

Lesson Objectives Students will utilize Present Simple tense and a bank of words IOT analyze images

Students will collaborate IOT analyze images

Description of Learning Tasks/Activities Pre-Task Phase: Modeling performance of the task and pre-teaching language

Teacher will model, using a different image, performance of the task.

Teacher will introduce Present Simple tense.

Teacher will practice with the students its usage.

Task Phase:

Time Pressure: Students will be asked to utilize 30 minutes to perform the task

Contextual Support: Groups of students are given a handout (see below) with words to utilize in a plan

Surprise Element: Teacher will draw the attention of the students during the task, notifying them that all these images are portraying New York City

Post-Task Phase: Language Work

Students complete language exercises on Present Simple tense.

Materials A handout with questions

An envelope with numbers images

A bank of words

Assessment Process Formative assessment during the task phase

Summative assessment of the information on the handout

 

Lesson 2:

Lesson Title City in Art Part 2
PA Standards CC.1.2.9–10.H Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing the validity of reasoning and relevance of evidence.

CC.1.3.9–10.J Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases; gather vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.

Lesson Objectives Students will collaborate IOT describe an image according to a set of criteria
Description of Learning Tasks/Activities Pre-Task Phase: Strategic planning

After distributing the computers, teacher gives students time to follow the steps of the stepper to access images and get comfortable with navigating the website.

Task Phase:

Time Pressure: Students will be asked to utilize 30 minutes to perform the task.

Contextual Support: Groups of students are given a handout (see below) with words to utilize in a plan

Post-Task Phase: Report

Students will have to report their description of ONE image in front of the whole group.

 

Homework: Students will have to select ONE image and write a descriptive paragraph (see instructions below).

Materials A handout with questions

A bank of words (the same from task 1)

Computers

 

Assessment Process Formative assessment during the task phase

Summative assessment of the information on the handout

 

Lesson 3

 

Lesson Title The Great Towns: Describing Surroundings
PA Standards  CC.1.2.9–10.J Acquire and use accurately general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college- and career-readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.

CC.1.4.9–10.E Write with an awareness of the stylistic aspects of composition. • Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to manage the complexity of the topic. • Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms of the discipline in which they are writing

Lesson Objectives Students will collaborate in groups IOT find adjectives in a text

Students will utilize a bank of descriptive adjectives IOT fill in the blanks

Students will utilize descriptive adjectives IOT write a descriptive paragraph about their respective communities

Description of Learning Tasks/Activities Pre-Task Phase: Schema-developing

Teacher asks students to give several descriptive sentences / phrases describing their communities in the US and back home.

Teacher asks about their knowledge of living conditions of working class in the mid-18th century. Do you think they were good or bad?

Teacher can show a couple of daguerreotypes / photographs (dated later, of course) to show the appalling living conditions of proletariat in the US, for instance

Modeling Performance of the Task

Teacher will review the concept of adjectives.

Teacher will model performance of the task 1 and will notify the students that upon completion of task 1 they will have to proceed with task 2 either utilizing the handout (see below right after task 2) or coming up with their own adjectives (may be permitted to utilize google translate).

Task Phase:

Time Pressure: Students will be asked to utilize 15 minutes to perform  task 1 and 20 minutes to perform task 2

Explicit Instruction: If teacher notices that students struggle with performing the task during the lesson, she brings back students and reteaches the material

Surprise Element: During the lesson, teacher asks students to stop and introduces the website thesaurus.com. She models finding synonyms for descriptive words and encourages students to utilize this website.

Post-Task Phase: Report

Teacher asks groups of students to share 1-2 of descriptive sentences from task 2

Extension: Students are assigned to complete task 3 on their own for homework

Materials Handouts with tasks 1 and 2

A bank of words for task 2 and 3

 

Assessment Process Formative assessment during the task phase

Summative assessment of the information on the handout

 

Lesson 4

Lesson Title Sedentary and Nomadic People: Character Exploration in Ibn Khaldun’s The Muqaddimah.
PA Standards CC.1.2.9–10.H Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing the validity of reasoning and relevance of evidence.

CC.1.3.9–10.J Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases; gather vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.

CC.1.3.9–10.B Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly, as well as inferences and conclusions based on an author’s explicit assumptions and beliefs about a subject.

Lesson Objectives Students will answer questions and supply evidence IOT perform the deep analysis of an image

Students will answer questions IOT analyze the text

Students will write down definitions of the words and their native-language equivalents IOT comprehend their meanings

Students will add conjunctive adverbs to sentences IOT create coherence

Description of Learning Tasks/Activities Pre-Task Phase: Pre-teaching language

The teacher assigns to the students to read the passage from The Muqaddimah for homework. The students are required to write down all the words in bold and write down their definitions. The teacher also puts words, their definitions, and images illustrating the words on the PP presentation and discusses them prior to the lesson.

Task Phase:

Contextual Support: Students are allowed to access their homework sheets with word definitions and the PP presentation with the vocabulary items (posted on google classroom).

Explicit Instruction: Teacher will circulate among groups and provide explicit instruction on how to analyze the text / find relevant evidence etc.

Post-Task Phase: Language Work

Grammar Focus: Conjunctive adverbs.

Teacher introduces a list of conjunctive adverbs. Students are encouraged to reread the text and find conjunctive adverbs (see appendix—there are 5 conjunctive adverbs in the text). After that, students are supplied with the list of conjunctive adverbs. These adverbs are discussed. Afterwards, students are supplied with the modified version of the text (see appendix), and students work in the same groups inserting 5 different conjunctive adverbs before select sentence.

Materials A handout with the text

A homework worksheet with key words

An envelope with images

A worksheet with questions for the deep image analysis

A worksheet with questions for the text analysis

A handout with conjunctive verbs

A modified handout with the text (for the post-task phase: language analysis).

Assessment Process Formative assessment during the task phase

Summative assessment of the information on the handout

 

Lesson 5

Lesson Title Complexities of the City of Zion: Exploring Compound and Complex Sentences in Context of a Psalm.
PA Standards CC.1.4.9–10.F Demonstrate a grade-appropriate command of the conventions of standard English grammar, usage, capitalization, punctuation, and spelling.
Lesson Objectives Students will cooperate in groups IOT locate compound and complex sentences

Students will utilize coordinating and subordinating conjunctions IOT make compound and complex sentences

  Pre-Task Phase: Pre-teaching language

Teacher introduces the concepts of compound and complex sentences prior to the task (see appendix).

Students practice making discerning and making compound and complex sentences.

Schema-developing

Teacher will ask students whether they are familiar with Biblical psalms.

A few minutes of the overview video on psalms is shown to help establish background knowledge on psalms:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j9phNEaPrv8

Task Phase:

Contextual Support: Students are allowed to access the handouts with coordinating and subordinating conjunctions.

Explicit Instruction: Teacher will circulate among groups and provide explicit instruction on how to locate compound / complex / compound complex / simple sentences in the text.

Surprise Element: At some point during the lesson, the teacher brings all the students’ attention to the fact that all the compound sentences in the psalm do not have the coordinating conjunctions, and therefore feature a common error called comma splice.

Post-Task Phase: Language Work

Grammar Focus: Compound and Complex Sentences.

After performance of the task, students practice making compound and complex sentences out of simple sentences.

Materials A handout with the text

A handout with coordinating and subordinating conjunctions

A worksheet with simple sentences to make compound and complex sentences

Assessment Process Formative assessment during the task phase

Summative assessment of the information on the handout

Lesson 6

Lesson Title Part 1: Philadelphia: the World Heritage City

Part 2: Diving into Culture: Exploring World Heritage Sites

PA Standards CC.1.4.9–10.V Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.

CC.1.5.9–10.D Present information, findings, and supporting evidence clearly, concisely, and logically such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning; ensure that the presentation is appropriate to purpose, audience, and task.

Lesson Objectives Part 1: Students will listen with attention IOT fill in the blanks

Part 2: Students will answer questions IOT explore a World Heritage site of choice.

 Part 1

Philadelphia: the World Heritage City

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Part 2

Diving into Culture: Exploring World Heritage Sites

Pre-Task Phase: Modeling Performance of the Task

Teacher models performance of the task by playing a part of the video and filling in the blanks.

Strategic Planning

Students are given time to plan performance of the task. Computers and headsets are distributed to groups of students, and teacher makes sure that ALL of the students have accessed the website with the video (here is the link: http://globalphiladelphia.org/world-heritage-city/film

Task Phase:

Time Pressure: Only a limited amount of time allocated to the performance of the task (depending on the students’ L2 proficiency level).

Students are required to collaborate in pairs to fill in the blanks with exact words from the video.

Surprise Element: At some point during the lesson, the teacher informs the students that the video has subtitles in 12 languages, and they can check their comprehension of the video at home as a homework assignment.

Post-Task Phase: Repeat Performance

Students may repeat performance of the task, this time listening to a different section of the video.

 

 

Pre-Task Phase:

Strategic Planning

Students are given time to plan performance of the task. Computers are distributed to groups of students, and teacher makes sure that ALL of the students have accessed the website via the following link: https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/. Teacher also follows the link on the Smartboard and models clicking and exploring all five required tabs that all of the World Heritage sites share.

Task Phase:

Time Pressure: Only a limited amount of time allocated to the performance of the task (depending on the students’ L2 proficiency level).

Students are required to agree on a country they know very little of, select a World Heritage site located in this country, and then fill in the graphic organizer with information they find online.

Surprise Element: At some point during the lesson, the teacher informs the students that the majority of the World Heritage sites have their information available in several languages.

Post-Task Phase: Report

Students report their findings to the whole class, supplementing the narrative with visuals and

Materials Part 1: A worksheet with transcript of the text with blanks

Computers and headsets

Part 2: Computers

A handout with questions aiding research

Assessment Process Formative assessment during the task phase

Summative assessment of the information on the handout

Resources

Bibliography

Doughty, C., & Pica, T.  “Information Gap Tasks: Do They Facilitate Second Language Acquisition?” TESOL Quarterly, 20(2), 1986, pp. 305-325.

This article is essentially a meta-analysis of several recent studies that examine the role of conversation during tasks. The conclusion is that all the evidence suggests that information exchange is essential during task-based instruction, and, furthermore, group (whether dyads or small groups) interaction is more conducive to conversational modification and, ultimately, language acquisition, than teacher-student interaction.

Ellis, R. & Shintani, N. (2014). Task-based language teaching. In Carter, R, & Cook, G. (Eds.), Exploring Language Pedagogy Through Second Language Acquisition (pp.135-159). London and New York: Routledge.

In this chapter of the book, Rod Ellis explores the area of his extensive and intensive research—task-based instruction. This chapter includes a list of task types and options for the three phases of a task-based lesson (that have become the foundation for all of my lesson plans), all is delineated in detail.

Foster, P., & Skehan, P. (1999). The influence of source of planning and focus of planning on task-based performance. Language Teaching Research, 3(3), 215–247.

In this article, several types of pre-task planning are discussed—teacher-led, solitary, and group based—and its benefits are discussed in terms of its impact on successful completion of the task. As this article concludes, all types of pre-task planning ultimately lead to greater accuracy, fluency and complexity during the task phase.

Long, M. (1989). Task, group, and task-group instruction. University of Hawai’i Working Papers in English as  Second Language, 8 (2), 1-26.

In this seminal article, the very construct of a “task” is discussed. The author postulates that it makes more sense to discuss the nature of “tasks” than “methods” when it comes to teachers, as the latter plan their instruction not based on a particular “method,” but around tasks. This approach makes this particular article very useful for classroom teachers, as it discusses the components of a task.

Merve Halici Page & Enisa Mede (2018) Comparing task-based instruction and traditional instruction on task engagement and vocabulary development in secondary language education, The Journal of Educational Research, 111:3, 371-381.

 

This study compares the traditional instruction with task-based instruction in secondary education. Its results reveal that task-based instruction has a very positive impact on motivation and vocabulary development.

 

Pica, Teresa (1994). Research on negotiation: What does It reveal about second‐language learning conditions, processes, and outcomes? Language Learning, Vol.44(3), pp.493-527.

 

This article is essentially a meta-analysis of all studies on negotiation of meaning published prior to the release date of the article (1994). The author synthesizes studies exploring negotiation, including informal data, and points out the areas of benefits as well as weakness (such as impossibility of negotiation of meaning without sufficient access to L2).

 

Pica, T., Kang, H., & Sauro, S. (2006). Information gap tasks: Their multiple roles and contributions to interaction research methodology. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 28(2), 301-338.

This article explores a particular type of tasks—information-gap tasks—and their active role in drawing learners’ attention to difficult but developmentally appropriate grammar forms, as well as function and meaning.

Quality Teaching for English Learners QTEL Informational Sheet. (2019). Philasd.org. Retrieved from https://www.philasd.org/multilingual/wp-content/uploads/sites/118/2019/03/Quality-Teaching-for-English-Learners-QTEL-Informational-Sheet.pdf

This document provides information about all aspects of the QTEL program—its background information, goals and requirements for participation.

Skehan, P. (2003). Task-based instruction. Language Teaching, 36(1), 1-14.

This extremely useful article gives a good idea about all aspects of task-based instruction, and is divided to 5 major sections: 1) Introduction to the task; 2) Coverage of research about tasks, including different perspectives; 3) Measurement of performance related to tasks; 4) Pedagogical applications of tasks; 5) Survey of critique related to tasks.

For the Lesson Plans

Aristotle. Politics. In LeGates, R. T., &  Stout, F.(Eds.) (2016). The City Reader. (pp. 249-58). London and New York: Routledge.

Politics is one of the fundamental pieces of writing that discusses the political order. In my unit, I only use excerpts from Book III. In the Book III, Aristotle explores the question “Who is a citizen?” In addition, Aristotle defines polis (city) and investigates its properties (political and otherwise), also exploring the role of a citizen in a city.

Coordinating Conjunctions. Retrieved from https://www.twinkl.com/resource/t-l-4953-new-fanboys-co-ordinating-conjunctions-display-poster

This resource can be used during the teaching of four types of sentence structure. Coordinating conjunctions are used in compound sentences.

Engels, Friedrich. The Great towns. In LeGates, R. T., & Stout, F. (Eds.) (2016). The City Reader. (pp. 53-62). London and New York: Routledge.

Friedrich Engels is known to everyone by his social revolutionary writings. This particular text explores the abysmal living conditions of the working class in Manchester, England, at the end of the first half of the nineteenth century. Though Engels did not attach any drawings to his narrative, the imagery he evokes is extremely vivid and impresses with its very detailed descriptive power.

Global Philadelphia. (2016). World Heritage Teaching Ideas [PDF file] Retrieved from https://0ffe89b0-065b-4eed-90d3-7c22aaf6aa4d.filesusr.com/ugd/8e7a15_ad231d4013904698b566ac7f4afa32e5.pdf

This PDF (retrieved from the Global Philadelphia website) is essentially a compilation of ideas to be used in conjunction with The Philadelphia World Heritage City film. The compilation of teaching ideas is tailored to each part of the movie (5 parts total). It offers an astounding scope of resources and ideas not only important to understanding every part of the movie, but also guiding a more in-depth inquiry into the history of Philadelphia.

Global Philadelphia Key Terms [PDF file]. Retrieved from https://0ffe89b0-065b-4eed-90d3-7c22aaf6aa4d.filesusr.com/ugd/8e7a15_ec1142340dff41a6be444ea9a7395857.pdf

This source is a crossword puzzle with many key terms connected to Philadelphia. This source may serve as an excellent resource for ESL teachers in particular, especially those having entering level of proficiency (according to WIDA guidelines).

Ibn Khaldūn. The Muqaddimah (F. Rosenthal, Trans.) [PDF file] Retrieved from https://asadullahali.files.wordpress.com/2012/10/ibn_khaldun-al_muqaddimah.pdf

This excerpt from the Chapter II of the important book The Muqaddimah, recording early view on history, discusses the virtues of the nomadic people and their infinite superiority over the sedentary folk residing in cities. The reasons for such superiority are introduced and discussed, together with vices and virtues of people living both lifestyles.

Plato. The Republic. [PDF] Retrieved from  http://www.idph.net/conteudos/ebooks/republic.pdf Note: there is no other info for this e-book in the PDF.

In Book III of The Republic, Socrates, Glaucon, and Adeimantus discuss, among other things,  how various classes of city’s citizens co-exist within the city, and what are the characteristics, rights and lifestyle habits of these classes.

Psalm 48 (New International Version). Retrieved from https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Psalm+48&version=NIV

In this psalm, the importance of the city of Jerusalem as a stronghold against all the enemies is recognized and glorified. This city is idealized as the holy place having heavenly power to protect people from all evil.

Sam Katz (producer and director). (2016). The Philadelphia World Heritage City. United States: History Making Productions. https://globalphiladelphia.org/world-heritage-city/film

This 28-minute documentary offers an astoundingly full (given the time constraints) overview of Philadelphia. It gives a historical account of Philadelphia’s formation, and gives insights into such fields as art, urban planning, transportation etc. But most importantly, it explores why Philadelphia is considered a World Heritage City.

Subordinating Conjunctions. Retrieved from https://7esl.com/subordinating-conjunctions/

This resource should be used when teaching four types of sentences: simple, compound, complex and compound-complex. Subordinating conjunctions are used in complex sentences.

The Four Types of Sentence Structure. Retrieved from https://www.grammar-monster.com/glossary/simple_sentence.htm

This resource gives a very thorough description of all four types of sentence structure in English language—simple, compound, complex and compound-complex. The grammar rules are thoroughly illustrated with examples.

UNESCO World Heritage Centre (n.d.) World Heritage List. Retrieved from https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/

The World Heritage List on UNESCO’s website lists the cultural landmarks / areas that are protected by the world community and important to humanity because of their cultural value. These sites / areas are listed under each country’s name, and can be virtually explored on the website.

Valdes, O. (2019, November 04). How to write a descriptive paragraph. ThoughtCo. Retrieved from https://www.thoughtco.com/how-to-write-a-descriptive-paragraph-1690559

This article is essentially a step-by-step guide of how to write a descriptive paragraph. This source is very comprehensible and accessible.

Appendix

Lesson 1

IMAGE 1

IMAGE 2

IMAGE 3

IMAGE 4

IMAGE 5

When was the image taken?

List all the details that you see on the image.

What do these details tell you about the image?

What do you think the author wanted to tell you with this image?

Which details prove it?

Pick ONE word that describes city as portrayed in this image.

 

IMAGE 1 IMAGE 2 IMAGE 3 IMAGE 4 IMAGE 5

 

 

Word Bank: Words for Description of the Image

 

 

 

Lesson 2

Stepper for the Task

  1. Go to https://www.philamuseum.org/?gclid=EAIaIQobChMIk4-mvo-p6AIVFZSzCh1kXQ7HEAAYASAAEgL5l_D_BwE
  2. Type in the word “city” in the search window
  3. Scroll down and select the category “Artworks.” Click on “View all artworks” shown in red.

 

  1. Explore the artworks. Select THREE pieces of artwork that you like the most. Use the worksheet to describe them.

Image 1

Image 2

Image 3

When was the image taken?

List all the details that you see on the image.

What do these details tell you about the image?

What do you think the author wanted to tell you with this image?

Which details prove it?

Pick ONE word that describes city as portrayed in this image.

Why did you select this image? Provide 2-3 reasons.

Homework: Writing a Descriptive Paragraph

Step 1: Select your Picture

Step 2: Describe your Picture Using the Graphic Organizer

Sight  
Sound  
Smell  
Taste  
Feel  

Step 3: Organize your Paragraph

  1. A topic sentence that identifies the topic and briefly explains its significance
  2. Supporting sentences that describe the topic in specific, vivid ways, using the details you’ve listed during brainstorming
  3. A concluding sentence that circles back to the topic’s significance

Step 4: Edit and Proofread your Paragraph

Lesson 3

Task 1: Analysis of the Original Text (from Friedrich Engels “The Great Towns”): Finding the Adjectives

Passing along a rough bank, among stakes and washing-lines, one penetrates into this chaos of small one-storied, one-roomed huts, in most of which there is no artificial floor; kitchen, living and sleeping room all in one. In such a hole, scarcely five feet long by six broad, I found two beds—and such bedsteads and beds! – which, with a staircase and chimney-place, exactly filled the room. In several others I found absolutely nothing, while the door stood open, and the inhabitants leaned against it. Everywhere before the doors lie refuse and offal; that any sort of pavement lay underneath could not be seen but only felt, here and there, with the feet. This whole collection of cattle-sheds for human beings was surrounded on two sides by houses and a factory, and on the third by the river, and besides the narrow stair up the bank, a narrow doorway alone led out into almost equally ill-built, ill-kept labyrinth of dwellings.

Task 2: Inserting Adjectives

Passing along a _______ bank, among stakes and washing-lines, one penetrates into this chaos of small ________, _______ huts, in most of which there is no _____________floor; kitchen, living and sleeping room all in one. In such a hole, scarcely five feet long by six broad, I found _____beds—and such bedsteads and beds! – which, with a ______staircase and chimney-place, exactly filled the _______room. In several others I found absolutely nothing, while the _______door stood open, and the _______inhabitants leaned against it. Everywhere before the doors lie _____refuse and _____offal; that any sort of pavement lay underneath could not be seen but only felt, here and there, with the feet. This whole collection of _______cattle-sheds for human beings was surrounded on two sides by ______houses and a_______ factory, and on the third by the_______ river, and besides the ______stair up the bank, a narrow doorway alone led out into almost equally _______, _______ labyrinth of dwellings.

Task 3: Writing a text using adjectives

Think about your community. Describe your community in 10 or more sentences using adjectives from the word bank below (at least 1 adjective in each sentence).

For a list of adjectives, follow the link or refer to the screenshots form this website below https://www.esolcourses.com/content/exercises/grammar/adjectives/places/words-for-describing-places.html

 

 

Lesson 4

Note: This text is from Ibn Khaldūn’s The Muqaddimah

Sedentary people are much concerned with all kinds of pleasures. They are accustomed to luxury and success in worldly occupations and to indulgence in worldly desires. Therefore, their souls are colored with all kinds of blameworthy and evil qualities. The more of them they possess, the more remote do the ways and means of goodness become to them. Eventually, they lose all sense of restraint. Many of them are found to use improper language in their gatherings as well as in the presence of their superiors and womenfolk. They are not deterred by any sense of restraint, because the bad custom of behaving openly in an improper manner in both words and deeds has taken hold of them. Bedouins may be as concerned with worldly affairs as (sedentary people are). However, such concern would touch only the necessities of life and not luxuries or anything causing, or calling for, desires and pleasures. The customs they follow in their mutual dealings are, therefore, appropriate. As compared with those of sedentary people, their evil ways and blameworthy qualities are much less numerous. They are closer to the first natural state and more remote from the evil habits that have been impressed upon the souls (of sedentary people) through numerous and ugly, blameworthy customs. Thus, they can more easily be cured than sedentary people. This is obvious. It will later on 18 become clear that sedentary life constitutes the last stage of civilization and the point where it begins to decay.

Homework

Word What it Means in Your Language Definition in English
Sedentary    
Indulgence    
Blameworthy    
Evil    
Remote    
Restraint    
Gathering    
To deter    
Deed    
Blameworthy    
Numerous    
To constitute    

 

Classwork

Deep Image Analysis

Image 1:

Image 2:

Image 3:

Image 4:

 

 

 

Square 1

What is happening in the image? In the image,

 

 

Is happening.

 

Square 2

What details make you say _________________

is happening?

The details that make me say ___________________

is happening are ______________________

______________________.

Square 3

What evidence supports what you see? The evidence that supports what I see is _____________________

_____________________.

Square 4

What more can you find in the image that helps you understand the image?  (key words/ phrases, people, objects, colors, etc.)

 

 

 

 

  Sedentary People Nomadic People
What vices do they have?    
What virtues do they have?    
Why do you think they have these vices?    
Why do you think they have these virtues?    
Why does the author think they have these vices? Give evidence.    
Why does the author think they have these virtues? Give evidence.    

 

A List of Conjunctive Adverbs

Language Work

Directions: Reread the text and insert where you think is a proper place the following adverbs: 1) Still

                                       2) Indeed

                                       3) Consequently

                                       4) Hence

                                       5) Namely

                                           Modified Version

Answer Key (may vary):

Sedentary people are much concerned with all kinds of pleasures. _______, they are accustomed to luxury and success in worldly occupations and to indulgence in worldly desires. Therefore, their souls are colored with all kinds of blameworthy and evil qualities. The more of them they possess, the more remote do the ways and means of goodness become to them. Eventually, they lose all sense of restraint. _______, many of them are found to use improper language in their gatherings as well as in the presence of their superiors and womenfolk. _______, they are not deterred by any sense of restraint, because the bad custom of behaving openly in an improper manner in both words and deeds has taken hold of them. _______, Bedouins may be as concerned with worldly affairs as (sedentary people are). However, such concern would touch only the necessities of life and not luxuries or anything causing, or calling for, desires and pleasures. The customs they follow in their mutual dealings are, therefore, appropriate. As compared with those of sedentary people, their evil ways and blameworthy qualities are much less numerous. _______, they are closer to the first natural state and more remote from the evil habits that have been impressed upon the souls (of sedentary people) through numerous and ugly, blameworthy customs. Thus, they can more easily be cured than sedentary people. This is obvious. It will later on 18 become clear that sedentary life constitutes the last stage of civilization and the point where it begins to decay.

 

Answer Key (may vary):

Sedentary people are much concerned with all kinds of pleasures. Hence, they are accustomed to luxury and success in worldly occupations and to indulgence in worldly desires. Therefore, their souls are colored with all kinds of blameworthy and evil qualities. The more of them they possess, the more remote do the ways and means of goodness become to them. Eventually, they lose all sense of restraint. Namely, many of them are found to use improper language in their gatherings as well as in the presence of their superiors and womenfolk. Consequently, they are not deterred by any sense of restraint, because the bad custom of behaving openly in an improper manner in both words and deeds has taken hold of them. Still, Bedouins may be as concerned with worldly affairs as (sedentary people are). However, such concern would touch only the necessities of life and not luxuries or anything causing, or calling for, desires and pleasures. The customs they follow in their mutual dealings are, therefore, appropriate. As compared with those of sedentary people, their evil ways and blameworthy qualities are much less numerous. Indeed, they are closer to the first natural state and more remote from the evil habits that have been impressed upon the souls (of sedentary people) through numerous and ugly, blameworthy customs. Thus, they can more easily be cured than sedentary people. This is obvious. It will later on 18 become clear that sedentary life constitutes the last stage of civilization and the point where it begins to decay.

Lesson 5

Simple Sentence

A simple sentence is a sentence that consists of just one independent clause. A simple sentence has no dependent clauses. (An independent clause (unlike a dependent clause) can stand alone as a sentence.)

Examples of Simple Sentences

Below are examples of simple sentences.

I cannot drink warm milk.

A day without sunshine is like night.

Only the mediocre are always at their best. (Novelist Jean Giraudoux)

Reality continues to ruin my life. (Cartoonist Bill Watterson)

Complex Sentence

A complex sentence has an independent clause and at least one dependent clause. For example:

When you write a comic strip, the person on the left always speaks first. (Comedian George Carlin)

Compound Sentence

A compound sentence has at least two independent clauses. For example:

I used to jog, but the ice cubes kept falling out of my glass. (Singer David Lee Roth).

Compound Complex Sentence

A compound-complex sentence has at least two independent clauses and at least one dependent clause.

For example:

I stopped believing in Santa Claus when my mother took me to see him in a department store, and he asked for my autograph. (Actress Shirley Temple)

Answer Key

Complex Sentences

Compound Sentences

Compound Complex Sentences

Simple Sentences

Psalm 48

Great is the Lord, and most worthy of praise,
in the city of our God, his holy mountain.

Beautiful in its loftiness,
the joy of the whole earth,
like the heights of Zaphon[b] is Mount Zion,
the city of the Great King.
God is in her citadels;
he has shown himself to be her fortress.

When the kings joined forces,
when they advanced together,
they saw her and were astounded;
they fled in terror.
Trembling seized them there,
pain like that of a woman in labor.
You destroyed them like ships of Tarshish
shattered by an east wind.

As we have heard,
so we have seen
in the city of the Lord Almighty,
in the city of our God:
God makes her secure
forever.[c]

Within your temple, O God,
we meditate on your unfailing love.
10 Like your name, O God,
your praise reaches to the ends of the earth;
your right hand is filled with righteousness.
11 Mount Zion rejoices,
the villages of Judah are glad
because of your judgments.

12 Walk about Zion, go around her,
count her towers,
13 consider well her ramparts,
view her citadels,
that you may tell of them
to the next generation.

14 For this God is our God for ever and ever;
he will be our guide even to the end.

 

 

 

Language Work Activity

Directions: Please make compound, complex, and compound complex sentences out of the following simple sentences:

Simple Compound Complex Compound-Complex
The rain fell yesterday. All the flowers came back to life.      
My father knows math well. He still makes lots of errors in equations.      
The paper I write is difficult. I work on it five hours per day.      
There are many things I don’t know. One thing I know is that I care for you.      
I am sad. I have been crying all day.      

Lesson 6

Part 1

Name:                                                   Date:

Link to the video: http://globalphiladelphia.org/world-heritage-city/film

Directions: Please follow the link and watch two minutes (from 1:38 to 3: 25) of the video. Work with a partner to fill in blanks in the graphic  organizer. You can listen to the narrator as you need.

I think the case for Philadelphia to be a world _______ city is as simple as this: There is no other place on _______ where one can see more clearly the _______ evidence of ________ important human ideas and globally _______ human accomplishments. And although what happened at Independence Hall in the last quarter of the 18th century appropriately makes it the _______ point for our world heritage _______, Philadelphia has something to celebrate in every _______ of our history and every corner of our region and every part of our _______ community. This broader significance is already formally _______ .In addition to _______ _______, sixty six other Philadelphia buildings and forty from the _______ suburban counties are national historic _______, the highest American recognition. Philadelphia’s _______ have not been easily achieved, and our history is full of experiments, failed as well as successful, and marked by _______, but our ideas and our _______ have prevailed. It’s also important to remember that our _____ is not a thing of the distant past, or just a list of handsome old buildings. We admire and protect those physical _______because of what the people who lived in them and made them did and thought, and the _______ in which that happened ended just a _______ ago. In this film, we’ll look into that _______ living _______ and at the drama that the Philadelphians have enacted at the world stage throughout our history.

Transcript:

I think the case for Philadelphia to be a world heritage city is as simple as this: There is no other place on earth where one can see more clearly the tangible evidence of globally important human ideas and globally transformative human accomplishments. And although what happened at Independence Hall in the last quarter of the 18th century appropriately makes it the starting point for our world heritage credentials, Philadelphia has something to celebrate in every era of our history and every corner of our region and every part of our multicultural community. This broader significance is already formally recognized. In addition to Independence Hall, sixty six other Philadelphia buildings and forty from the surrounding suburban counties are national historic landmarks, the highest American recognition. Philadelphia’s accomplishments have not been easily achieved, and our history is full of experiments, failed as well as successful, and marked by strife, but our ideas and our idealism have prevailed. It’s also important to remember that our heritage is not a thing of the distant past, or just a list of handsome old buildings. We admire and protect those physical reminders because of what the people who lived in them and made them did and thought, and the past in which that happened ended just a moment ago. In this film, we’ll look into that relevant living heritage and at the drama that the Philadelphians have enacted at the world stage throughout our history.

Different Section of the Video for the Post-Task Phase

Link to the video: http://globalphiladelphia.org/world-heritage-city/film

Directions: Please follow the link and watch two minutes (from to 3:36 to 5:31) of the video. Work with a partner to fill in blanks in the graphic  organizer. You can listen to the narrator as you need.

Act 1: Enlightenment City

To begin at the beginning, Philadelphia’s founding in the 17th century was one of _____________ and most fully realized expressions of the _______ and starting at ground level, our sixteen eighty three grid plan B speaks of the rationalism of that era and of our _______ William Penn. The plan seemed so _______, and it is of course still so much a part of our daily lives that we’re usually blind to its internationally important _______ character. Penn’s plan swept away, as nowhere else the _______ disorder of the largely medieval cities that he and his ­­­­­­­­______ had known in Europe, cities _______ by disease and literally _______ as proven by the fiery destruction of London in sixteen sixty six, Philadelphia’s physical ______ served and ______ an even more important  _______ and _______revolution. The multi-steepled eighteenth century city that rose and still rises on Penn’s plan embodied a _______ philosophy that left no room for religious _______, and his city’s _______ for _______thinking of all kinds provided the setting for the _______ invention of modern _______. As you may know, Penn’s ________ plan for Philadelphia was for much more than a century was a kind of _______, and ideal two-mile wide grid _______ from river to river upon which real Philadelphians _______ _______ at its eastern edge crowding along the Delaware but notably, _______, even as they camped along its edge, our Philadelphia _______ and their map makers kept the _______ image of Penn’s _______ idealism in mind.

Transcript

To begin at the beginning, Philadelphia’s founding in the 17th century was one of the boldest and most fully realized expressions of the Enlightenment ,nd starting at ground level, our sixteen eighty three grid plan B speaks of the rationalism of that era and of our founder William Penn. The plan seemed so ordinary, and it is of course still so much a part of our daily lives that we’re usually blind to its internationally important revolutionary character. Penn’s plan swept away, as nowhere else the physical disorder of the largely medieval cities that he and his colonists had known in Europe, cities plagued by disease and literally incendiary as proven by the fiery destruction of London in sixteen sixty six, Philadelphia’s physical innovation served and emblematized an even more important  social and political revolution. The multi-steepled eighteenth century city that rose and still rises on Penn’s plan embodied a rational philosophy that left no room for religious prejudices, and his city’s tolerance for diverse thinking of all kinds provided the setting for the subsequent invention of modern democracy. As you may know, Penn’s ambitious plan for Philadelphia was for much more than a century was a kind of abstraction, and ideal two-mile wide grid running from river to river upon which real Philadelphians camped out at its eastern edge crowding along the Delaware but notably, astoundingly, even as they camped along its edge, our Philadelphia ancestors and their map makers kept the majestic image of Penn’s optimistic idealism in mind.

 

Part 2

Name: __________________            Date: _________________

Directions: 1. Please follow the link https://whc.unesco.org/

  1. Go to the “List” tab and then click on “World heritage List.”
  2. Narrow down to cultural national heritage sites by clicking on the “Cultural” tab.
  3. Select a country you are interested in.
  4. Select a cultural heritage site.
  5. Fill in the graphic organizer with the most important information (2-3 sentences IN YOUR OWN WORDS). DO NOT COPY SENTENCES EXACTLY AS THEY ARE!
In what country is this site located? This site is located in ________________.
Draw the map of the country and indicate the site on that map.  

 

 

 

 

 

Why is this site important?

Give three reasons

Reason 1:

Reason 2:

Reason 3:

 

What is the history of the site?

Give 3 facts

Fact 1:

Fact 2:

Fact 3:

 

Why is this site authentic?

Give 3 facts

Fact 1:

Fact 2:

Fact 3:

 

Why do you like this site? Fact 1:

Fact 2:

Fact 3:

 

 

 

 

Content Standards

 

CC.1.2.9–10.H Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing the validity of reasoning and relevance of evidence.

CC.1.3.9–10.J Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases; gather vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.

CC.1.2.9–10.J Acquire and use accurately general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college- and career-readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.

CC.1.4.9–10.E Write with an awareness of the stylistic aspects of composition. • Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to manage the complexity of the topic. • Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms of the discipline in which they are writing.

CC.1.3.9–10.B Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly, as well as inferences and conclusions based on an author’s explicit assumptions and beliefs about a subject.

CC.1.4.9–10.F Demonstrate a grade-appropriate command of the conventions of standard English grammar, usage, capitalization, punctuation, and spelling.

CC.1.4.9–10.V Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.

CC.1.5.9–10.D Present information, findings, and supporting evidence clearly, concisely, and logically such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning; ensure that the presentation is appropriate to purpose, audience, and task.