The Evolution of Law Enforcement in Philadelphia

Author: Tim Woods

School/Organization:

A. Philip Randolph Career and Technical Academy

Year: 2006

Seminar: Philadelphia: A 300-Year History

Keywords: Criminal Justice, Philadelphia Law Enforcement, Philadelphia Police Department, Police, PPD, United States Government

This curriculum on criminal justice will be incorporated into the Social Science course, a course required of all students to graduate in the School District of Philadelphia. Social Science is primarily a survey course that covers the United States government and economic systems and is a usually taken in the eleventh grade. During the semester, Social Science looks in depth at not only the U.S. economy and political systems, but also the affects throughout society.

The curriculum will take an estimated seven school days of block-scheduled classes to complete. Each day will cover a different aspect of law enforcement and also touch on other agencies departments and institutions that assist the police in law enforcement.

I will offer this unit at the A. Philip Randolph Career and Technical Academy. Randolph is a select school in the Philadelphia School District with a focus on hands-on approaches to vocational education. Our school is a relatively small school in a very large district with just over 400 students. Randolph is a select school. Our physical location is in the northwestern part of the city, but our students come from all parts of the city. Although our students come from almost every neighborhood in the city, the student body is not diverse. The majority of our students are African American (97 percent) with only two other cultures represented in the remaining three percent. Also the majority of our students come from the same socioeconomic status with over 70 percent of the student’s families falling below the poverty line.

Because many of the students come from the same backgrounds despite the area of the city in which they reside, the majority of them have the same mindset when it comes to the Philadelphia Police Department. Overwhelmingly, almost all of our students distrust and have a negative attitude towards the Police. This creates some challenges, which I will address within the curriculum.

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Full Unit Text
Overview

This curriculum on criminal justice will be incorporated into the Social Science course, a
course required of all students to graduate in the School District of Philadelphia. Social
Science is primarily a survey course that covers the United States government and
economic systems and is a usually taken in the eleventh grade. During the semester,
Social Science looks in depth at not only the U.S. economy and political systems, but also
the affects throughout society.

The curriculum will take an estimated seven school days of block-scheduled classes to
complete. Each day will cover a different aspect of law enforcement and also touch on
other agencies departments and institutions that assist the police in law enforcement.
I will offer this unit at the A. Philip Randolph Career and Technical Academy. Randolph
is a select school in the Philadelphia School District with a focus on hands-on approaches
to vocational education. Our school is a relatively small school in a very large district
with just over 400 students. Randolph is a select school. Our physical location is in the
northwestern part of the city, but our students come from all parts of the city. Although
our students come from almost every neighborhood in the city, the student body is not
diverse. The majority of our students are African American (97 percent) with only two
other cultures represented in the remaining three percent. Also the majority of our
students come from the same socioeconomic status with over 70 percent of the student’s
families falling below the poverty line. 1

Because many of the students come from the same backgrounds despite the area of the
city in which they reside, the majority of them have the same mindset when it comes to
the Philadelphia Police Department. Overwhelmingly, almost all of our students distrust
and have a negative attitude towards the Police. This creates some challenges, which I
will address within the curriculum.

Rationale

One section of the course that I find particularly interesting is the section on the Criminal
Justice system in the United States and how it affects our local community. On top of a
personal interest in criminal justice, professionally I enjoy teaching this section because it
incorporates topics previously studied in the course such as: the reasoning behind and the
applications of law; the roles of the legislative, executive and judicial branches, and how
they work together toward a common goal of protecting society, or are at odds with each
as to solving certain problems. This topic not only works as a unit of study, but as a
chance to review and connect previous knowledge. In addition, the students are often
interested in this aspect of government for two reasons: one, it is visible to the students
on a daily basis and two, because of the heightened exposure popular culture has given to
criminal empires and activities and those who actively or historically fight crime.
By the time we get to the chapter on Criminal Justice the class has already looked in
depth at all three branches of government at the federal and state level, the court system,
and a basic introduction to law. Using this knowledge, I would like to build upon it by
looking at the different political arenas in the city that make up Philadelphia’s criminal
justice system.

According to the World Book Encyclopedia, the definition of criminal justice is: “[T]he
system used to enforce the laws established by society. It attempts to protect people from
assault, murder, rape, robbery, and other crimes. It also tries to safeguard them from
being falsely arrested, imprisoned, or fined.” The encyclopedia also states, “Every nation
has its own system of criminal justice. The U.S. system is divided into three areas: (1) the
police, (2) the courts, and (3) the correctional system.” The curriculum will treat the
history of and the current criminal justice system, using Philadelphia as a case study. To
truly understand the system that is currently in place, one has to look back at the
evolution of that system. Philadelphia offers a rich history of all three aspects of criminal
justice and has many resources in the city to further the understanding of the subject. The
curriculum also offers a unique chance for the students to examine hot button issues such
as: witness intimidation, youth violence, gun laws, drug laws/enforcement, and methods
of fighting crime.

As a teacher in an inner city high school, I have come to realize that the majority of the
students have a negative viewpoint of law enforcement and a basic distrust of the
criminal justice system in Philadelphia and nationwide. The students many times have
reasons for this distrust, but usually only see one side of the story. I believe that one
reason for this viewpoint is a lack of knowledge and understanding of the system and
rationales for certain procedures and practices of the police departments, court system
and prison system.

The main goal of the curriculum is to get the students to view the police not as foreign
occupiers of their neighborhoods, but as an ally of the community that protect and serve
the citizens of the city. However, I am not naïve to the fact that there are police officers
that abuse their powers and erode the trust of the citizens they have been hired to protect.
We will look at this aspect in one of the lessons on how people view the police and why
these viewpoints exist.

The designed curriculum will take eight days. Throughout the curriculum we will look at
many aspects of the criminal justice system and law enforcement in the city of
Philadelphia. Although most of the curriculum is based around law enforcement,
particularly the Philadelphia Police Department, we will briefly touch upon other areas of
law enforcement agencies, the public images of the police, the prison system and the
current challenges the city is facing.

I will apply a historic perspective of the Philadelphia Police Department and previous law
enforcement in Philadelphia to explain why and how the city’s Police Department
functions and works with the community to face today’s issues. We will look at issues
such as: reasons for a police department, challenges of the department past and present,
the response to challenges (riots, demonstrations, high murder rates, security and large
events), and see how these issues have shaped the current force.

Historical Background

When William Penn founded the city of Philadelphia, he dubbed it “the city of brotherly
love”. Although Philadelphia has been given this nickname, it has rarely lived up to it.
One common theme that could characterize almost any era in the city’s history is one of
violence. Out of a response to this violence, Philadelphia has created a complex system of
law enforcement to protect and assist a large population. However, the system that is in
place today is much different than in the past. The system has undergone many changes
due to the changing needs and demands of the citizens it serves. In order to understand
this evolution, one must look at it in a historical perspective to realize how the
Philadelphia Police emerged into one of the country’s largest and more advanced police
departments.

Before Philadelphia grew into the large city it is today, it was just a small town along the
banks of the Delaware River. Areas we consider part of Philadelphia today were just
small settlements scattered and remote from the services offered by the city. In the
beginning there was not an organized police force, as we know it today. The notion of a
force began with local constabularies and night watchmen who worked on a volunteer
basis. Many local citizens participated in this form of a “Town Watch”. Also each small
outpost surrounding the city appointed a sheriff to keep order. These men mostly were
required to keep an eye out for suspicious activity, alert others if the situation warranted,
and to settle disputes among residents.2

But as the population of the city grew, so did the need for an organized and paid police
force. In 1751, the City of Philadelphia created its first paid police agency.3 This group of
officers was mostly comprised of wardens and constables who were stationed in “watch
boxes” throughout the city. However, this agency was limited in their abilities and powers
to adequately fight and prevent crime.

During the 19th century, the city underwent serious changes and transformed into an
industrial powerhouse. During and following this transition, the city underwent many
transformations, which in turn created growing problems facing the city. Because of the
rise of industry, Philadelphia attracted many newcomers seeking employment. The
mixture of newcomers and the established working class created tension. As the 1800’s
progressed crime rates and records of violence surged. Philadelphia began to see more
riots and other activities in the streets that stripped the citizens of a feeling of security.
Resentment toward immigrants began to heighten in the 1840’s as these tensions boiled
over in the form of riots.

During this time a new secretive group emerged in the United States and had a strong
presence in Philadelphia. So-called nativists (who later formed a political party, the
Know Nothing Party, as they responded, “I know nothing,” when asked about their
secretive society) were native-born, Protestant U.S. citizens with a deep-seated fear and
hatred toward the newcomers, most notably the Irish with their close ties to the Catholic
Church. Tensions ran high for years, but after a letter written by Bishop Kenrick to the
school board to excuse Catholic school children from prayers so they could use the
Catholic bible,4 Protestants were furious. On May 3 and July 4 of 1844 the city saw these
tensions come to a head. The nativists, exacerbating the fears of the Protestants, led a
mob of angry citizens to the streets of the highly catholic concentrated Kensington
section of the city. During these days, the city saw violence and destruction like it had
never before or since. The city erupted into full-scale riots where churches were burnt to
the ground, people beaten to death and gunfire erupting in the streets.

Violence raged out of control over weeks because Philadelphia did not have the adequate
means to respond to such a threat. At the time Kensington had only one sheriff with no
money to form an armed group of individuals to quell the violence. There were also
disputes between the militias and the city due to unpaid debts for previous services of the
same kind. Out of response to these riots, the citizens of Philadelphia demanded an
organized paid police force to stop such threats in the future. In 1845 City Council passed
an act that created a force “of not less than one able bodied-man for every 150 taxable
inhabitants”. 5 Then in 1850, the city passed another ordinance establishing a
Philadelphia Police Department with a force given the authority throughout the city and
surrounding districts. This force was to be separate from the established watchmen and
constabularies. Along with the creation of a force came a police board made up of a
marshal and four lieutenants to organize the force and stations to be built in various
locations throughout the city.

Although the Philadelphia Police Department (PPD) was created out of a response to the
riots that destroyed sections of the city, the department also faced other crimes that
needed to be addressed. Along with the prosperity of industrial development came a
seedy underworld of crime. Many gangs emerged with the lucrative business of
controlling the docks and wharfs along the river, and with other black market activity. As
some were growing rich, many others were being forced into poverty creating many
social and criminal problems associated with poverty. Along with these problems, racial
tensions began to grow and the city saw many violent outbursts towards free African
Americans.

The city commissioned new forces designed to prevent these threats. In 1860,
Philadelphia saw the integration of the Harbor Patrol into the PPD. In another area of
reform in Philadelphia, the city took the lead in creating a detective force. Although the
city was working toward the prevention of crime, many of the crimes already committed
went unsolved. Originally the city did not provide any funds for detective work. This job
was previously left to private detectives who were paid to recover stolen goods or to split
a reward for missing persons. Cases of murder usually went unreported or reported
incorrectly. Philadelphia led the way in the nation with creating a small force of
detectives to investigate homicide and other claims of foul play.6

Along with other innovations, Philadelphia was also at the forefront of prison design. The
first prisons were rudimentary lock boxes located on the outskirts of town. In 1790 the
Quakers led the way in prison reform by creating the Walnut Street Prison. The prison
was designed to force inmates to spend most of their time in solitary confinement to think
about god and their crimes and, repent for their misdeeds. The prisoners were encouraged
to use their time to make “penitence” with themselves and their maker.7 This new idea of
prisons as a system of reformation quickly caught on. When The Walnut Street Prison
outgrew itself, the city commissioned a much larger version to be located outside of the
city close to the banks of the Schuylkill River. Eastern State Penitentiary opened in 1829
and quickly grew in international fame. The prison received many famous visitors to see
this new model of incarceration. However, the prison did work out as planned and many
of the inmates eventually became insane due to extreme solitude forced upon them while
serving their time.

As time progressed, the PPD was forced to modernize to meet the changing demands of
the times. In 1889, the PPD created the mounted patrol by acquiring several horses and
stables to house the animals. The mounted patrol was a strong force in the PPD.
However, the patrol became out dated and was discontinued in 1951. In 1906, the
department began patrolling on motorcycles and by 1936 cars were introduced as a
weapon to fight crime, which were also equipped with two-way radios. The city needed
to grow in sophistication as the needs to fight crime grew.8 The twentieth century was marked by times of unrest and police altercations that began to
erode many citizens trust in the force.

The early 1900’s saw an upsurge of violence in the form of racial tensions. Great
numbers of African Americans migrated to the north in search for jobs with the outset of
World War I. Between the years of 1910 and 1920 African American population grew by
58 percent to a total of over 134,000. The newcomers did not receive a warm welcome,
only the resentment of the white working class, particularly the Irish who competed for
low skilled jobs. In 1918 the heated debates turned into open violence as white neighbors
attacked the homes of black families on the 2500 block of Pine Street. Following the
attacks by the whites, the police amazingly made more arrests of African Americans then
the whites who had initiated the violence. The Philadelphia Tribune denounced the PPD
for failing to protect black families’ homes and advocated self-protection.9
The 1960’s and 70’s were equally tumultuous times. Philadelphia, along with the rest of
the country during this era, saw large student protests, political upheaval and racial
unrest. The PPD were on the front line at controlling these scenes. The police appeared as
cold and callous. The city became especially divided over actions of the police
commissioner and then mayor, Frank Rizzo. Rizzo was a tough, no nonsense type of a
figure. Many of Catholic blue-collar background supported Rizzo; however, others rarely
favored his policies, and notably, African Americans. His legacy is summed up well in a
photograph of him coming from a banquet in a tuxedo to the site of a protest, tucking a
nightstick in his cummerbund to stand on patrol.10 The PPD was viewed as a group of
thugs carrying out Rizzo’s policies. In addition, the city was also facing more racial
problems. The commissioner, whether right or wrong, was given credit for keeping the
violence from spilling into full scale rioting. However, it was not without costs. The
black community who received the brunt of Rizzo’s policies did not appreciate his rough
tactics carried out mostly by white officers.

In the 1980’s, racial tensions continued to plague the city again. Because of various
scandals involving policemen in the 1970’s, many in the city began to question the
legitimacy of the police. These questions came to a head in 1985 when a militant African
American group named MOVE barricaded themselves in their house and provoked a
shootout with the PPD when they tried to search the house. Wilson Goode, then mayor,
ordered a bomb dropped on their house. Following a large explosion, the police stood by
and watched as the entire block burned to the ground. While the force still held
considerable respect among their followers, trust almost completely eroded in the black
community. No officers were found negligent in the altercation; however it only
strengthened the questioning of the PPD tactics.

Today’s PPD is a sophisticated force with more then 6,000 officers working in some
highly specific roles in fighting and preventing crime. Even with the increase of officers
and the technology the force has gained, police still face a number of threats that are
common in large cities. Throughout the 20th century the city declined as a leading
manufacturing city and many jobs disappeared as a consequence. Since then there has
been a void in job re-creation. As a result, Philadelphia has a number of poverty stricken
areas with high rates of crime and violence. The drug epidemic has expanded, the schools
have a 50 percent drop-out rates, and the murder rate has been climbing. Last year the
figure reached an astounding 380 murders and we are on pace to surpass that number this
year. On top of this, the police face a culture of witness intimidation and a number of
other problems that hinder their ability to do the job.

Today the police face a culture of distrust in the poorest neighborhoods in the city. Most
officers still work hard to serve the principles that they swore to uphold. However, the
disconnect between the police and the community hinder the police force in fulfilling
their mandate. On top of this, the many scandals and corrupt officers in the force only
antagonize these problems. Because of this disconnect, the city struggles to keep citizens
safe from crime, furthering that distrust of law enforcement. Because of these problems,
Philadelphia’s system of law enforcement continues to change. Just recently,
Commissioner Johnson created a new a squadron to combat crime during the peak hours
of 10 p.m. to 6 a.m. Also, the current mayor, John Street, has created an initiative
entitled, “Safe Streets,” which will put more officers on the streets in the areas that need
help the most. These are not the only changes taking place in Philadelphia law
enforcement, but as always, the future of the city will be affected by law enforcement’s
evolution as it faces the continuous shifts indicative to a city of its size.

Objectives

  • Students will identify the reasons societies need law enforcement
  • Students will look at the relationship between the police and the community
  • Students will analyze the prison system for the county of Philadelphia and the
    relationship to the Philadelphia Police Department
  • Students will identify important departments, agencies and bureaus that assist the
    police in law enforcement
  • Students will learn how to analyze historic pictures and how to get meaning from
    the background of those photos
  • Students will create an agenda for the future of the Philadelphia Police
    Department
  • Students will practice their articulation and debate skills
  • Students will understand local government
  • Students will question their own assumptions about local government and law
    enforcement
  • Students will learn how to analyze primary documents
  • Students will strengthen their ability to work in small and large group settings

Strategies

Throughout this curriculum I will utilize many different strategies. Most of the unit is
based upon discussion and group activities. I want the students to not only learn the
information, but to use the curriculum as an outlet for their frustrations and comments
about how they view the police and any interactions they have had with law enforcement
and/or the court systems.

Each day will encompass a different strategy in having the students come to their final
conclusion. On day one the students will read primary sources as a way to understand
Philadelphia’s history of violence and need for law enforcement. In lesson two, the
students will analyze historic documents and first hand accounts of violence in the city
and imagine what the people must have felt in these times of peril. This lesson unlike the
rest will probably last for two full block classes due to the amount of time consumed
during the activity and the amount of transitions the class must go through. In lesson
three, the students will use their learned skills in Internet research to find pertinent
information on an agency that assists the Philadelphia Police Department in law
enforcement and crime prevention. In lesson four, the students will be broken into groups
to create a model of a prison by using prior knowledge of how prisons have been
constructed and how the reflects the purposes of a prison, a model for punishment or
rehabilitation, or a combination of both. In lesson five, the students will learn how to
analyze photographs historically by looking at a number of newspaper photos of the
police in action.

In lesson six, the students begin to consider the future of Philadelphia. During this lesson,
the students will analyze current problems facing the PPD by reading current newspaper
articles and reporting to the class what they have learned. The lesson also requires the
students to begin to think about what can be done to correct some of these problems.
Finally in lesson seven, the students begin to create their own agenda for reform. The
students will not only highlight the problems that they feel are the most serious for the
city, but create a plan for the police department on how to fix these problems.
As a follow up in most lessons, each student will be required to write a short essay on
what they have learned that day for homework. One of the worst problems facing the
students of the Philadelphia School District is their inability to communicate their
thoughts through writing. I will use this opportunity to encourage the students to write,
hopefully by creating enthusiasm in the subject.

I feel that the combination of these many strategies will allow the students to understand
the Philadelphia Police Department in greater depth. While it may not alleviate all of the
students anxieties about the PPD, it will give them a historical sense of why the PPD
exists and what the job of the current force is.

Following the eight-day curriculum, I would like to invite a current police officer into the
classroom and allow the students to raise questions that they have about the force. I also
would like to give the students a chance to discuss with the police issues that they have in
their neighborhoods and ask the officer(s) what is being done about these issues. In other
words, I would like the visit to be a two-way conversation with the students, not just a
normal presentation by the community relations department of the PPD. The students
need to feel that they are being heard, and need to learn ways to allow their voices to be
heard.

Classroom Activities

Day 1- Reasons For Law Enforcement

Objective:

Students will identify the reasons societies need law enforcement

Materials:
  1. Chalkboard
  2. Five primary documents of accounts of riots in the city of Philadelphia

The documents can be found at:
http://www.hsp.org/default.aspx?id=394
http://www.explorepahistory.com/odocument.php?docId=39

Procedures:
  1. Begin with a class discussion about what society would be like without any form
    of law enforcement
  2. As students are brainstorming, put some of these ideas on the board
  3. Briefly give an account of many riots in Philadelphia
  4. Break the class into five groups, giving each group a copy of one account of a
    personal witness of a riot in the city.
  5. The students are to analyze the document and answer the following questions:
    a. What is the title of the article?
    b. Who wrote the article/where did it come from?
    c. What is being described in the article?
    d. Whose point of view do they describe in the article?
    e. Briefly summarize the article pointing out at least two things that
    interested you in the article.
  6. After each group has had enough time to answer the questions, go around the
    room and have each group report out what they have discovered in their articles
  7. End with a discussion of why a police force would be necessary to deal with these
    types of events in such a large city.
Evaluation:

For homework, the students are to read the article, “Department History,” on the
Philadelphia Police Department’s website and answer attached questions (see Handout
1).

Lesson 2- Have We Always Been This Violent?

This lesson will probably last two full block periods unlike the rest of the lessons.
Objective: The students will analyze historical and primary documents that highlight the
violence the city has seen historically.

Materials:
  1. Primary documents highlighting the violence throughout Philadelphia’s history
  2. crayons or colored pencils
  3. chart paper
Procedure:
  1. Review the homework from the prior night
  2. The students will break into groups of four to five
  3. Each group will be given a primary document detailing a violent episode in
    Philadelphia.
  4. Each group is to read the document and draw a picture of the scene being
    described in the document.
    a. I usually make each group draw a sketch of the scene before I distribute
    the chart paper
  5. After enough time has been given to complete the drawing, each group will
    present their scene in chronological order of the documents
Evaluation:

Each student will write a two to three paragraph essay about how they have
seen the power of law enforcement abused

Lesson 3- What departments, agencies, and bureaus help the police in law enforcement?

Objective:

Students will identify important departments, agencies and bureaus that assist
the police in law enforcement.

Materials:
  1. review homework from the prior night
  2. Handouts of guided questions required for research (see handout in the handouts
    section)
  3. A list of agencies that the students must research
  4. Computer lab
  5. Chalkboard
Procedure:
  1. Students will form groups of three.
  2. Let the students know that each group will research an agency through the
    internet by filling out required information on the handout distributed at the
    beginning of class
  3. Allow the students 30-45 minutes to complete the following handout
  4. Following the research, each group will report out to the class the information
    they were able to find through their research.
Evaluation

For homework, each student is to write a two to three page paragraph on ways the agency
they researched helps fight crime in the city and what they could do to help prevent
crime.

Lesson 4- Where do all of the criminals go?

Objective:

The students will analyze the prison system currently in place in Philadelphia
County and look at the prison system historically in Philadelphia.

Materials:
  1. Chalkboard
  2. Copies of pages 80-81 from Murder in America by Roger Lane
  3. Smart board or LCD and a computer or laptop
  4. Chart paper
  5. Crayons, markers or colored paper
Procedure:
  1. Review the homework from the prior night
  2. As students walk in have them pick up a copy of the assigned reading
  3. Students will sit at their desks and read quietly the assigned reading
  4. When all of the students have finished the reading, have a class discussion based
    on what a prison should be: a place for reform or a place for punishment
  5. Following the discussion show students pictures of prison architecture that is to
    reflect these two positions
  6. After showing all of the photos, have the students break into groups of three to
    four
  7. Each group is to design an outlay of a prison to reflect their point of view of how
    a prison should be run (students are to be as creative as they want to be
  8. When the students are done this exercise, each group is to present to the class
    their model and how it reflects their feelings of how a prison should be run
Evaluation:

Students are to write a three-to-four-paragraph essay on the following argument: Should
prisons be places for reform or punishment? Why?

Lesson 5 -Images of the police department then and now

Objective:

Students will analyze and reflect upon images of the Philadelphia Police
Department over the past twenty years and how these images have influenced the public
image of the force.

Materials:
  1. Overhead projector or digital projector
  2. Ten historic images of the Philadelphia Police Department (see attached pictures)
Procedure:
  1. Review the homework from the prior night
  2. As a warm up, the students will write a short paragraph on how they think the
    police department is viewed in the public and reasons for their views.
  3. Have a few students read their paragraphs out loud
  4. Discuss with the class how photographs/images can shape opinions of the Police
    Department
  5. Have students take out two blank sheets of paper
  6. Show each photograph to the class allowing each photograph to be viewed for 3-5
    minutes. While each image is up, students are to write down what thoughts come
    to mind while viewing the photo. They are to describe what they think is going on
    in the picture, and how the image makes them feel. Each student is to do this
    activity individually without discussion amongst each other.
  7. After showing all of the photos to the students, ask them to put their pens down.
    Then go through the photos again, this time allowing the students to share their
    thoughts on each photo. Also during this go around, take the time to give the
    history of each photograph.
  8. As a wrap up, have a class discussion on how or if the students thoughts of each
    image had changed after learning the background of the photos.
Evaluation:

For homework, each student is to write a two paragraph essay on what they took away
from today’s activity.

Lesson 6 -What current challenges face the city? How are the police responding and is it benefiting the quality of life in Philadelphia?

Objective:

Students will analyze current challenges in the city facing the police and
programs put in place to combat these challenges.

Materials:
  1.  Seven newspaper articles of current issues/problems facing the PPD
  2. Chalkboard
Procedure:
  1. Review the homework from the prior night
  2. Quickly brainstorm with the students on current issues facing Philadelphia. As the
    students are brainstorming, write the list on the board.
  3. Following the quick brainstorming activity have the students break up into groups
    of four to five.
  4. Each group will be given a recent newspaper article with a story highlighting a
    particular problem currently facing the PPD.
  5. Each group will read the article and answer the following questions (give the
    students 20-30 minutes to complete these questions)
    a. What is the title, author and date of the article
    b. Briefly summarize the article
    c. Write a few sentences detailing what you already know about this problem
    d. Give at least two ways this problem effects the city
    e. Outline at least two things the PPD could do to help or fix the problem
    6. After each group has finished reading and answering the questions, have the
    student present their answers aloud to the class. Allow the other groups to ask
    questions as the groups are reporting out.
  6. Wrap up the class by reviewing some of the issues that the students have felt most
    passionate about
Evaluation:

For homework, each student is to write a two to three paragraph essay on what issue they
feel is the worst problem for their neighborhood and how it has affected them.

Lesson 7-So what does the future hold?

Objective:

Students will create an agenda for the future of the Philadelphia Police
Department.

Materials:
  1. Chalkboard
  2. Chart paper
Procedure:
  1.  Review the homework from the prior night
  2. Review with the students some of the issues that are facing the city of
    Philadelphia
  3. Have the students break into groups of four or five
  4. Each group is to come up with a plan to tackle at least one problem facing the city
    Their plan must include:
    a. The root of the problem
    b. The best way to immediately alleviate the problem
    c. How to prevent this problem from happening in the future
    d. What is needed to stop this problem (i.e. money, man power, etc)
  5. Each group must present their issue and how to solve it to the class. The group
    must be able to answer questions about their solution, tactics and costs.
Evaluation:

Each student must write a letter to Commissioner Johnson on the problem they feel is the
most severe in the city and how they would fix that problem.

Annotated Bibliography

Arnold, Stephanie L. “Police form elite unit to focus of night crime,” The Philadelphia
Inquirer, June 3, 2006, Page A 01.
This article gives detailed information on a new squadron of the PPD that will
concentrate their efforts between the hours of 10 p.m. to 6 a.m.
Bowdren, Phil. “A brief history of the Philadelphia Police Department,”
http://www.ppdonline.org/hq_history.php (accessed June 2, 2006).
This article is on the PPD website and gives a brief history of the department.
Dubois, W.E.B. The Philadelphia Negro. Philadelphia, PA: The University of
Pennsylvania Press, 1899.
The Philadelphia Negro is a detailed account on Philadelphia’s free African
American community living in the seventh ward in the year of 1896.
Lane, Roger, Murder In America: A History. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University
Press, 1997.
Roger Lane gives a historic perspective of murder and other violent crimes in the
United States focusing on the evolution of the country and the peoples reaction to
these crimes.
Miller, Randall M., and William Pencak, Pennsylvania: A History of the Commonwealth.
University Park, PA: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 2002.
This book is a complete history of the state of Pennsylvania from the states
inception to current times. The Pennsylvania Historical Society commissioned
this book.
Moran, Robert. “Two dozen arrests, but few witnesses,” The Philadelphia Inquirer,
September 17, 2006, B 01.
This is an article dealing with the problem of witness intimidation in the city of
Philadelphia
Olley, Christine. “Violence strikes them again,” Philadelphia Daily News, May 31, 2006,
Page 05.
This is an article that details the rising rates of violent crime in the city of
Philadelphia
Porter, Jill, “About our gun problem, we know what to do,” Philadelphia Daily News,
June 2, 2006, Page 07.
An editorial that looks at Pennsylvania’s gun laws and the problems the city of
Philadelphia is having trying to keep guns out of the hands of minors and
criminals.
Stoiber, Julie. “FBI announces seizure of killer heroin,” The Philadelphia Inquirer, May
6, 2006, Page B01.
Julie Stoiber wrote an article about an FBI investigation on a heroin ring that had
killed many who used the drug. The article also goes into depth about the drug
problem Philadelphia is facing, drug laws in Pennsylvania and how the PPD along
with other agencies are trying to crack down on these drug rings.
The School District of Philadelphia. 2006. School Profile Randolph Career Academy
Demographic and Climate Information.
https://sdpwebprod.phila.k12.pa.us/school_profiles/servlet/ (accessed June 14, 2006).
This website details the demographics and other school statistics for A. Philip
Randolph Career and Technical Academy.
Weigley, Russell F., Philadelphia: A 300 Year History. New York, NY: W.W. Norton &
Company 1982.
This book is one of the most comprehensive historical accounts of the city of
Philadelphia.Works Cited
Internet Sites
http://www.hsp.org/default.aspx?id=394
http://www.explorepahistory.com/odocument.php?docId=39
Primary Documents:
The Truth Unveiled; or, a Calm and Impartial Exposition of the Origin and Immediate
Cause of the Terrible Riots and Rebellion in Philadelphia. By a Protestant and Native
Philadelphian. Baltimore: Metropolitan Tract Society, 1844.
http://www.hsp.org/files/truthunveiledstudentreadingfinal.pdf (accessed June 14, 2006)
The Truth Unveiled is a firsthand account of the riots in 1844 in the
Kensington section of Philadelphia. This article is written from the
Nativist’s point of view.
Reflections on the Late Riots by Candid Writers in Poetry and Prose. Philadelphia: 1844.
http://www.hsp.org/files/reflectiospoemforstudents.pdf (accessed June 14, 2006).
“Reflections” is a poem written about the Philadelphia riots in 1844. The poem is
a detailed account from an eyewitness about the reason for the riot and its
immediate effects following. This is written from a nativist’s point of view and
demonstrates the racism that the Irish Catholic faced during that time period.
“The Riots,” Pennsylvania Freemann. 14. 18 July, 1844.
http://www.yale.edu/glc/archive/953.htm (accessed June 14, 2006).
“The Riots” is an article written in the Pennsylvania Freemann newspaper about
the riots in Kensington. The Pennsylvania Freemann was a newspaper published
by free African American in Philadelphia, so it offers a nonbiased point of view
of the riots of 1844.
“Continuation of Evidence Relative to the Riots,” Public Ledger, v. 17, 18-24 July, 1844.
http://www.yale.edu/glc/archive/957.htm (accessed June 14, 2006).
This document, published by the Public Ledger, is published testimony of Capt.
Hill of the City Guard. His testimony states his account of the mobs assembled in
the Southwark section of Philadelphia during the riots in 1844.
“The Southwark Riots,” Public Ledger,v. 17, 23 July, 1844.
http://www.yale.edu/glc/archive/960.htm (accessed June 14, 2006).
The Southwark Riots is a newspaper article that details the accounts of several
nativists burning down a Catholic Church in Southwark and a priest who tried to
stop the mob.
“The Kensington Massacre,” The Republic, A Magazine for the Defence of Civil and
Religious Liberty, No. 1 August 1845.
http://www.hsp.org/files/thekensingtonmassacrefinal.pdf (accessed June 15, 2006).
This article was published in a Catholic newspaper and gives a first hand account
of the 1844 Riots from the Irish Catholic point of view.
Images: Photos
http://citypaper.net/articles/2002-08-22/cb.shtml
http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/election/july-dec00/protests_7-27.html
www.asc.upenn.edu/usr/ cassidy/pix/paw/2004/47/
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/2151710.stm
openphoto.net/gallery/ image.html?image_id=7374
www.phillyspyshop.com/ SecuirtyNews.htm
These websites offer an array of photos in which Philadelphia Police officers are
engaged in different types of law enforcement and prevention.
Architecture: Photos and Architectural drawings
http://www.easternstate.org/album/arch/set1/index.html
http://www.ossininghistorical.org/prison1.jpg
http://www.ossininghistorical.org/prison2.jpg
http://www.cpa.eku.edu/auburn.htm
http://www.brynmawr.edu/Acads/Cities/imgb/nextone/med/1095.jpg
http://www.spdconline.org/history/Facts/Courthouse.html
These websites offer valuable pictures of prison layouts that outline how the
prison is run and what philosophy each prison succumbs to.
Endnotes

Appendix / Standards

Pennsylvania Standards
5.1.12.A. Evaluate the major arguments advanced for the necessity of government.
5.1.12.B Analyze the sources, purposes and functions of law.
5.1.12 I Analyze historical examples of the importance of the rule of law explaining the
sources, purposes and functions of law.
5.1.12 J Analyze Pennsylvania and United States court decisions that have affected
principles and ideals of government in civic life.
• Civil rights
• Commerce
• Judicial review
• Federal supremacy
5.2.12.C. Interpret the causes of conflict in society and analyze techniques to resolve
those conflicts.
5.3.12.A. Analyze and evaluate the structure, organization and operation of the local,
state, and national governments including domestic and national policy-making.
5.3.12.D. Evaluate how independent government agencies create, amend and enforce
regulations.
5.3.12.J. Evaluate the role of media in political life in the United States and explain the
role of the media in setting the public agenda.
8.1.9.B. Analyze and interpret historical sources.
• Literal meaning of historical passages
• Data in historical and contemporary maps, graphs, and tables
• Different historical perspectives
• Data from maps, graphs and tables
Visual data presented in historical evidence
8.2.9 B. Identify and analyze primary documents, material artifacts and historic sites
important in Pennsylvania history from 1787 to 1914.